Epidemiological Study (cohort study)
Cellular telephones and cancer--a nationwide cohort study in Denmark. epidemiol.
By: Johansen C, Boice Jr JD, McLaughlin J, Olsen J
Published in: J Natl Cancer Inst 2001; 93 (3): 203 - 207 (full-text
| Journal website
Aim of study (according to author)
A nationwide retrospective cohort study of cancer incidence was conducted in Denmark of all cellular telephone subscribers from 1982 through 1995.
Cellular telephone users were identified from subscriber lists of two Danish operating companies. The cancer incidence among the users was determined by linkage with the Danish Cancer Registry.
Endpoints/type of risk estimation
Estimate of incidence
by standardized incidence rate
- mobile communication system, analog mobile phone, digital mobile phone, GSM, NMT, personal exposure
- type of exposure: personal
- assessment by list (cellular telephone subscribers of two Danish operating companies including type of phone (analog or digital), date of subscription)
groups of exposure:
|group 1: || total subscriber |
|group 2: || time since first subscription to a cellular phone service: < 1 year |
|group 3: || time since first subscription to a cellular phone service: 1-4 years |
|group 4: || time since first subscription to a cellular phone service: ≥ 5 years |
|group 5: || age at entry: 0-49 years |
|group 6: || age at entry: 50-64 years |
|group 7: || age at entry: ≥ 65 years |
|group 8: || cellular phone system used: analog |
|group 9: || cellular phone system used: analog and digital |
|group 10: || cellular phone system used: digital |
|group 11: || duration of digital subscription: < 1 year |
|group 12: || duration of digital subscription: 1-2 years |
|group 13: || duration of digital subscription: ≥ 3 years |
Study group: men and women, aged over 18 years
Group characteristics: cellular telephone subscribers
Observation period: January 1982 - December 1995
Study location: Denmark
Source of data: Danish Cancer Registry
Exclusion criteria: corporate customers
|Study size || cohort |
|number total ||723,421|
|number eligible ||420,095|
: 1,128,493 peron-years of follow-up
Statistical analysis using Miettinen exaxt method
Results/conclusion (according to author)
The results showed no increased risk for all cancers, brain tumors, leukemia, or tumors of the salivary glands, the sites of a priori interest. No association between cancer incidence and cellular phone subscription was found with the latency, age at first subscription, analog or digital cellular phones use, and duration of subscription.
Limitations (according to author): No conclusions can be drawn for long-term users, since only 5.1% of the cohort members had a cellular phone subscription for more than 5 years.
(Study character: epidemiological study, cohort study)
Study funded by
- Danish Cancer Society
- International Epidemiology Institute, Maryland, USA
- Sonofon, Denmark
- TeleDanmark Mobil (TDC Mobil), Denmark
Published comments on this article:
- Chapman S et al. (2016): Has the incidence of brain cancer risen in Australia since the introduction of...
- Kim SJH et al. (2015): Trends in incidence of primary brain cancer in New Zealand, 1995 to 2010.
- Leitgeb N (2015): Synoptic Analysis of Epidemiologic Evidence of Glioma Risk from Mobile Phones.
- Carlberg M et al. (2014): Decreased Survival of Glioma Patients with Astrocytoma Grade IV (Glioblastoma...
- Leitgeb N (2014): Synoptic Analysis of Epidemiologic Evidence of Brain Cancer Risks from Mobile...
- Benson VS et al. (2013): Mobile phone use and risk of brain neoplasms and other cancers: prospective...
- Poulsen AH et al. (2013): Mobile Phone Use and the Risk of Skin Cancer: A Nationwide Cohort Study in...
- Hsu MH et al. (2013): The incidence rate and mortality of malignant brain tumors after 10 years of...
- Hardell L et al. (2013): Use of mobile and cordless phones and survival of patients with glioma.
- Deltour I et al. (2012): Mobile Phone Use and Incidence of Glioma in the Nordic Countries 1979-2008:...
- Barchana M et al. (2012): Changes in brain glioma incidence and laterality correlates with use of mobile...
- de Vocht F et al. (2011): Time trends (1998-2007) in brain cancer incidence rates in relation to mobile...
- Schüz J et al. (2011): Long-Term Mobile Phone Use and the Risk of Vestibular Schwannoma: A Danish...
- INTERPHONE Study Group et al. (2011): Acoustic neuroma risk in relation to mobile telephone use: Results of the...
- Frei P et al. (2011): Use of mobile phones and risk of brain tumours: update of Danish cohort study.
- Ding LX et al. (2011): Increasing incidence of brain and nervous tumours in urban Shanghai, China,...
- Goldwein O et al. (2010): The influence of handheld mobile phones on human parotid gland secretion.
- Inskip PD et al. (2010): Brain cancer incidence trends in relation to cellular telephone use in the...
- Deltour I et al. (2009): Time trends in brain tumor incidence rates in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and...
- Kaufman DW et al. (2009): Risk factors for leukemia in Thailand.
- Schüz J et al. (2007): Risks for central nervous system diseases among mobile phone subscribers: a...
- Röösli M et al. (2007): Cellular telephone use and time trends in brain tumour mortality in Switzerland...
- Lahkola A et al. (2007): Mobile phone use and risk of glioma in 5 North European countries.
- Klaeboe L et al. (2007): Use of mobile phones in Norway and risk of intracranial tumours.
- Schüz J et al. (2006): Cellular telephone use and cancer risk: update of a nationwide Danish cohort.
- Lönn S et al. (2006): Mobile phone use and risk of parotid gland tumor.
- Lahkola A et al. (2006): Meta-analysis of mobile phone use and intracranial tumors.
- Schüz J et al. (2006): Cellular phones, cordless phones, and the risks of glioma and meningioma...
- Takebayashi T et al. (2006): Mobile phone use and acoustic neuroma risk in Japan.
- Hardell L et al. (2006): Case-control study of the association between the use of cellular and cordless...
- Lönn S et al. (2005): Long-term mobile phone use and brain tumor risk.
- Christensen HC et al. (2005): Cellular telephones and risk for brain tumors: a population-based, incident...
- Schoemaker MJ et al. (2005): Mobile phone use and risk of acoustic neuroma: results of the Interphone...
- Christensen HC et al. (2004): Cellular telephone use and risk of acoustic neuroma.
- Lönn S et al. (2004): Mobile Phone Use and the Risk of Acoustic Neuroma.
- Lönn S et al. (2004): Incidence trends of adult primary intracerebral tumors in four Nordic...
- Cook A et al. (2003): Cellular telephone use and time trends for brain, head and neck tumours.
- Muscat JE et al. (2002): Handheld cellular telephones and risk of acoustic neuroma.
- Auvinen A et al. (2002): Brain tumors and salivary gland cancers among cellular telephone users.
- Johansen C et al. (2002): Mobile phones and malignant melanoma of the eye.
- Hardell L et al. (2001): Ionizing radiation, cellular telephones and the risk for brain tumours.
- Hardell L et al. (2000): Case-control study on radiology work, medical x-ray investigations, and use of...
- Hardell L et al. (1999): Use of cellular telephones and the risk for brain tumours: A case-control...
, brain tumors
, cancer registry
, cellular phone
, cohort study
, mobile communication
, salivary gland cancer
, salivary glands
, TumorsExposure: mobile communication
system, analog mobile phone
, digital mobile phone
, personal exposure
Do you want to give a feedback on our extract of the article?