Epidemiological Study (cohort study)
Cellular telephones and cancer--a nationwide cohort study in Denmark. epidemiol.
By: Johansen C, Boice Jr JD, McLaughlin J, Olsen J
Published in: J Natl Cancer Inst 2001; 93 (3): 203 - 207 (full-text
| Journal website
Aim of study (according to author)
A nationwide retrospective cohort study of cancer incidence was conducted in Denmark of all cellular telephone subscribers from 1982 through 1995.
Cellular telephone users were identified from subscriber lists of two Danish operating companies. The cancer incidence among the users was determined by linkage with the Danish Cancer Registry.
Endpoints/type of risk estimation
Estimate of incidence
by standardized incidence rate
- mobile communication system, analog mobile phone, digital mobile phone, GSM, NMT, personal exposure
- type of exposure: personal
- assessment by list (cellular telephone subscribers of two Danish operating companies including type of phone (analog or digital), date of subscription)
groups of exposure:
|group 1: || total subscriber |
|group 2: || time since first subscription to a cellular phone service: < 1 year |
|group 3: || time since first subscription to a cellular phone service: 1-4 years |
|group 4: || time since first subscription to a cellular phone service: ≥ 5 years |
|group 5: || age at entry: 0-49 years |
|group 6: || age at entry: 50-64 years |
|group 7: || age at entry: ≥ 65 years |
|group 8: || cellular phone system used: analog |
|group 9: || cellular phone system used: analog and digital |
|group 10: || cellular phone system used: digital |
|group 11: || duration of digital subscription: < 1 year |
|group 12: || duration of digital subscription: 1-2 years |
|group 13: || duration of digital subscription: ≥ 3 years |
Study group: men and women, aged over 18 years
Group characteristics: cellular telephone subscribers
Observation period: January 1982 - December 1995
Study location: Denmark
Source of data: Danish Cancer Registry
Exclusion criteria: corporate customers
|Study size || cohort |
|number total ||723,421|
|number eligible ||420,095|
: 1,128,493 peron-years of follow-up
Statistical analysis using Miettinen exaxt method
Results/conclusion (according to author)
The results showed no increased risk for all cancers, brain tumors, leukemia, or tumors of the salivary glands, the sites of a priori interest. No association between cancer incidence and cellular phone subscription was found with the latency, age at first subscription, analog or digital cellular phones use, and duration of subscription.
Limitations (according to author): No conclusions can be drawn for long-term users, since only 5.1% of the cohort members had a cellular phone subscription for more than 5 years.
(Study character: epidemiological study, cohort study)
Study funded by
- Danish Cancer Society
- International Epidemiology Institute, Maryland, USA
- Sonofon, Denmark
- TeleDanmark Mobil (TDC Mobil), Denmark
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, brain tumors
, cancer registry
, cellular phone
, cohort study
, mobile communication
, salivary gland cancer
, salivary glands
, TumorsExposure: mobile communication
system, analog mobile phone
, digital mobile phone
, personal exposure
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