Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Lymphoma Development in Mice Chronically Exposed to UMTS-Modulated Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields med./bio.

Published in: Radiat Res 2007; 168 (1): 72-80

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To study whether chronic exposure to UMTS electromagnetic fields influences the development of lymphoma in a lymphoma animal model, the AKR/J mouse. The AKR/J mice genome carries a virus, which leads within one year to spontaneous development of thymic lymphoblastic lymphoma.

Background/further details

Mice were chronically sham exposed (n = 160) or exposed (n = 160). 30 animals were kept as cage controls.



Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 1.966 GHz
Exposure duration: almost continuous for up to 248 days
  • SAR: 0.4 W/kg mean (whole body) (±50%)

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 1.966 GHz
  • guided field
Exposure duration almost continuous for up to 248 days
Modulation type cf. additional info
Additional info

generic UMTS test signal (1-min periodical) [Ndoumbe Mbonjo Mbonjo et al., 2004]

Exposure setup
Exposure source
Chamber Animals were housed in groups of six to seven in polycarbonate cages (W 40 x L 25 x H 7 cm) with no metal parts. They were RF or sham exposed in the same room as the cage controls in two identical radial waveguides. The waveguides were 4 m in diameter with a vertical plate distance of 8 cm in the region of the cages and below 6 cm toward the center to produce a well-defined field distribution. RF-absorbers were installed at the outer boundaries of the units to reduce reflections and standing waves.
Setup Twenty-four cages per unit were placed at an equal distance from the center and covered with trapezoidal lids (three cages per opening) with wire mesh. The signal was connected to the cone antenna of one unit via a black box (blind design).
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Additional info Animals were exposed 24 h per day with the exception of the time during which they were weighed and palpated and while the cages were cleaned. The waveguides were slightly overmoded with H = 0.525 λ. To prevent additional modes caused by field scattering by the mice, metal rip structures with a height and width of 2 cm were attached to the upper and lower plate between adjacent cages.
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
SAR 0.4 W/kg mean calculated whole body ±50%

Reference articles

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Investigated organ system:
Time of investigation:
  • during exposure
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

The data did not show any significant effect of chronic exposure to an UMTS signal on body weight gain or lymphoma incidence. Malignancy of the lymphomas was also not affected in these mice, which are genetically predisposed to this disease.

Study character:

Study funded by

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