Medical/biological study (experimental study)

900 MHz radiofrequency-induced histopathologic changes and oxidative stress in rat endometrium: protection by vitamins E and C.

Published in: Toxicol Ind Health 2007; 23 (7): 411-420

Aim of study (acc. to author)

It should be examined whether oxidative stress has an important role in 900 MHz mobile phone induced endometrial damage and to investigate the role of the antioxidant vitamins E and C on endometrial tissue in rats.
Background/further details: Altogether thirty-two sexually mature female rats (16 weeks old, 170-200 g) were used. Vitamin E and vitamin C were injected as doses of 50 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly and 20 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally, respectively, before the daily exposure period. In control rats isotonic saline solution was administered. At the end of the study, control and exposed animals were waited for the onset of estrus, than the animals were sacrificed and their uterus examined.



Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 900 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: repeated daily exposure, 30 min/day, for 30 days
  • power: 2 W peak value
  • power density: 1.04 mW/cm²
  • SAR: 4 W/kg maximum (whole body)
  • SAR: 0.016 W/kg minimum (whole body)
Exposure 1
Main characteristics
Frequency 900 MHz
Exposure duration repeated daily exposure, 30 min/day, for 30 days
Modulation type pulsed
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Setup A special exposure device with exposure antenna for insulated exposure was used in the study. The exposure system for an animal consisted of a ventilated plastic tube cage (12 cm long, 5 cm in diameter) and a half-wave dipole antenna above which the whole body of the rat was positioned in close contact.
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Additional info The animals (eight each) were randomly allocated to one of four groups: control, sham exposed, RF exposed, and RF exposed plus vitamin treated.
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power 2 W peak value - - -
power density 1.04 mW/cm² - measured - -
SAR 4 W/kg maximum measured whole body -
SAR 0.016 W/kg minimum measured whole body -
Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated material:
Investigated organ system:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

Endometrial levels of nitric oxide and malondialdehyde increased in exposed rats while the combined vitamins E and C caused a significant reduction in the levels of nitric oxide and malondialdehyde. Likewise, endometrial superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities decreased in exposed animals while vitamins E and C caused a significant increase in the activities of these antioxidant enzymes. In the exposure group histopathological changes in endometrium, diffuse and severe apoptosis, was present in the endometrial surface epithelial and glandular cells and the stromal cells. Diffuse eosinophilic leucocyte and lymphocyte infiltration were observed in the endometrial stroma whereas the combination of vitamins E and C caused a significant decrease in these effects of electromagnetic irradiation.
In conclusion, oxidative endometrial damage plays an important role in the 900 MHz mobile phone-induced endometrial impairment and the modulation of oxidative stress with vitamins E and C reduces the 900 MHz mobile phone-induced endometrial damage both at biochemical and histological levels.
Study character:

Study funded by

  • not stated/no funding

Related articles

  • Djordjevic B et al. (2015): The effect of melatonin on the liver of rats exposed to microwave radiation.
  • Shahin S et al. (2013): 2.45 GHz microwave irradiation-induced oxidative stress affects implantation or pregnancy in mice, Mus musculus.
  • Liu C et al. (2013): Exposure to 1800MHz Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation Induces Oxidative DNA Base Damage in a Mouse Spermatocyte-Derived Cell Line.
  • Sokolovic D et al. (2013): Melatonin protects rat thymus against oxidative stress caused by exposure to microwaves and modulates proliferation/apoptosis of thymocytes.
  • Aynali G et al. (2013): Modulation of wireless (2.45 GHz)-induced oxidative toxicity in laryngotracheal mucosa of rat by melatonin.
  • Tomruk A et al. (2010): The influence of 1800 MHz GSM-like signals on hepatic oxidative DNA and lipid damage in nonpregnant, pregnant, and newly born rabbits.
  • Imge EB et al. (2010): Effects of mobile phone use on brain tissue from the rat and a possible protective role of vitamin C - a preliminary study.
  • Koyu A et al. (2009): The protective effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on oxidative stress in rat liver exposed to the 900 MHz electromagnetic field.
  • Sokolovic D et al. (2008): Melatonin reduces oxidative stress induced by chronic exposure of microwave radiation from mobile phones in rat brain.
  • Zeni O et al. (2007): Formation of reactive oxygen species in L929 cells after exposure to 900 MHz RF radiation with and without co-exposure to 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone.
  • Yurekli AI et al. (2006): GSM base station electromagnetic radiation and oxidative stress in rats.
  • Oral B et al. (2006): Endometrial Apoptosis Induced by a 900-MHz Mobile Phone: Preventive Effects of Vitamins E and C.
  • Koylu H et al. (2006): Melatonin modulates 900 Mhz microwave-induced lipid peroxidation changes in rat brain.
  • Lantow M et al. (2006): ROS release and Hsp70 expression after exposure to 1,800 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic fields in primary human monocytes and lymphocytes.
  • Özgüner F et al. (2006): Protective effects of melatonin and caffeic acid phenethyl ester against retinal oxidative stress in long-term use of mobile phone: a comparative study.
  • Lantow M et al. (2006): Free radical release and HSP70 expression in two human immune-relevant cell lines after exposure to 1800 MHz radiofrequency radiation.
  • Simko M et al. (2006): Hsp70 expression and free radical release after exposure to non-thermal radio-frequency electromagnetic fields and ultrafine particles in human Mono Mac 6 cells.
  • Bediz CS et al. (2006): Zinc supplementation ameliorates electromagnetic field-induced lipid peroxidation in the rat brain.
  • Özgüner F et al. (2005): A novel antioxidant agent caffeic acid phenethyl ester prevents long-term mobile phone exposure-induced renal impairment in rat. Prognostic value of malondialdehyde, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase and nitric oxide determination.
  • Oktem F et al. (2005): Oxidative damage in the kidney induced by 900-MHz-emitted mobile phone: protection by melatonin.
  • Özgüner F et al. (2005): Mobile phone-induced myocardial oxidative stress: protection by a novel antioxidant agent caffeic acid phenethyl ester.
  • Özgüner F et al. (2005): Comparative analysis of the protective effects of melatonin and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on mobile phone-induced renal impairment in rat.
  • Koyu A et al. (2005): Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester Modulates 1800 MHz Microwave-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat Liver.
  • Zmyslony M et al. (2004): Acute exposure to 930 MHz CW electromagnetic radiation in vitro affects reactive oxygen species level in rat lymphocytes treated by iron ions.
  • Ayata A et al. (2004): Oxidative stress-mediated skin damage in an experimental mobile phone model can be prevented by melatonin.
  • Özgüner F et al. (2004): Prevention of mobile phone induced skin tissue changes by melatonin in rat: an experimental study.
  • Kim MJ et al. (2004): Green tea catechins protect rats from microwave-induced oxidative damage to heart tissue.
  • Gokcimen A et al. (2002): The effect of melatonin on morphological changes in liver induced by magnetic field exposure in rats.