Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

900 MHz radiofrequency-induced histopathologic changes and oxidative stress in rat endometrium: protection by vitamins E and C med./bio.

Published in: Toxicol Ind Health 2007; 23 (7): 411-420

Aim of study (acc. to author)

It should be examined whether oxidative stress has an important role in 900 MHz mobile phone induced endometrial damage and to investigate the role of the antioxidant vitamins E and C on endometrial tissue in rats.

Background/further details

Altogether thirty-two sexually mature female rats (16 weeks old, 170-200 g) were used. Vitamin E and vitamin C were injected as doses of 50 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly and 20 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally, respectively, before the daily exposure period. In control rats isotonic saline solution was administered. At the end of the study, control and exposed animals were waited for the onset of estrus, than the animals were sacrificed and their uterus examined.



Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 900 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: repeated daily exposure, 30 min/day, for 30 days
  • power: 2 W peak value
  • power density: 1.04 mW/cm²
  • SAR: 4 W/kg maximum (whole body)
  • SAR: 0.016 W/kg minimum (whole body)

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 900 MHz
Exposure duration repeated daily exposure, 30 min/day, for 30 days
Modulation type pulsed
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Setup A special exposure device with exposure antenna for insulated exposure was used in the study. The exposure system for an animal consisted of a ventilated plastic tube cage (12 cm long, 5 cm in diameter) and a half-wave dipole antenna above which the whole body of the rat was positioned in close contact.
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Additional info The animals (eight each) were randomly allocated to one of four groups: control, sham exposed, RF exposed, and RF exposed plus vitamin treated.
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power 2 W peak value - - -
power density 1.04 mW/cm² - measured - -
SAR 4 W/kg maximum measured whole body -
SAR 0.016 W/kg minimum measured whole body -

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Investigated organ system:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

Endometrial levels of nitric oxide and malondialdehyde increased in exposed rats while the combined vitamins E and C caused a significant reduction in the levels of nitric oxide and malondialdehyde. Likewise, endometrial superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities decreased in exposed animals while vitamins E and C caused a significant increase in the activities of these antioxidant enzymes. In the exposure group histopathological changes in endometrium, diffuse and severe apoptosis, was present in the endometrial surface epithelial and glandular cells and the stromal cells. Diffuse eosinophilic leucocyte and lymphocyte infiltration were observed in the endometrial stroma whereas the combination of vitamins E and C caused a significant decrease in these effects of electromagnetic irradiation.
In conclusion, oxidative endometrial damage plays an important role in the 900 MHz mobile phone-induced endometrial impairment and the modulation of oxidative stress with vitamins E and C reduces the 900 MHz mobile phone-induced endometrial damage both at biochemical and histological levels.

Study character:

Study funded by

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