Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

RETRACTED: Evaluation of basal DNA damage and oxidative stress in Wistar rat leukocytes after exposure to microwave radiation. retracted

Published in: Toxicology 2009; 259 (3): 107-112

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To study the effects of microwave exposure on DNA damage in rats and to assess whether microwave-induced DNA damage is basal or whether it is also generated through reactive oxygen species formation.

Background/further details

Eight rats were exposed and eight rats were sham-exposed. A modified comet assay was used to increase the sensitivity and to detect oxidative DNA damage.
This article has been retracted at the request of the Editors-in-Chief (further details).



Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 915 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: continuous for 1 h/day, 7 days/week for 2 weeks

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 915 MHz
Exposure duration continuous for 1 h/day, 7 days/week for 2 weeks
Modulation type pulsed
Additional info

basic GSM modulation

Exposure setup
Exposure source
Setup animals placed in individual 25 cm x 7.5 cm x 7.5 cm Plexiglas cages inside the GTEM cell
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power density 2.4 W/m² - - - -
electric field strength 30 V/m - - - uniform over the animal's body
SAR 0.6 W/kg average over mass - whole body -

Reference articles

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

Both the standard and the Fpg-modified comet assay detected increased DNA damage in blood leukocytes of the exposed rats. The significant increase in the Fpg-detected DNA damage suggests that oxidative stress is likely to be responsible. DNA damage detected by the standard comet assay indicates that some other mechanisms may also be involved.

Study character:

Study funded by