Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

The effects of pulsed and sinusoidal electromagnetic fields on E-cadherin and type IV collagen in gingiva: a histopathological and immunohistochemical study. med./bio.

Published in: Adv Clin Exp Med 2013; 22 (2): 245-252

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To investigate the potential beneficial effects of extremely low frequency magnetic fields on the gingiva of rats.

Background/further details

Gingival epithelium has an important role regarding immunosurveillance in the periodontal tissue. Additionally, the epithelium serves as a mechanical barrier. Hereby, the proteins collagen and cadherin (transmembrane protein, forming adherent junctions to hold cells within tissues together) play an important role. Electromagnetic or magnetic fields are used for treatment in periodontal diseases, but the effects on healthy gingival tissue are not known yet.
Three groups of rats were examined (n=9 per group): 1.) control group, 2.) exposure to sinusoidal magnetic field and 3.) exposure to pulsed magnetic field (PEMF).

Endpoint

Exposure

Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 50 Hz
Exposure duration: 6 h/day, 5 days/week for 28 days
Exposure 2: 50 Hz
Exposure duration: 6 h/day, 5 days/week for 28 days

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 50 Hz
Type
Waveform
Exposure duration 6 h/day, 5 days/week for 28 days
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Chamber rats freely moving in a methacrylate cage inside the coils
Setup two pairs of Helmholtz coils (70 cm in diameter) in a Faraday cage (130 x 65 x 80 cm); magnet was constructed by winding 125 turns of insulated soft copper wire with a diameter of 1.5 mm; coils were vertically placed facing one another; distance between coils: 47 cm
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
magnetic flux density 1.5 mT - measured - -

Exposure 2

Main characteristics
Frequency 50 Hz
Type
Waveform
Exposure duration 6 h/day, 5 days/week for 28 days
Additional info pulse time: 25 µs
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
magnetic flux density 1.5 mT - measured - -

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

In both exposed groups, the number of lymphocytes significantly increased, the proliferation of epithelial cells was significantly enhanced and the rete ridges (epidermal thickenings which serve as junctions between epidermis and dermis) were significantly elongated in comparison to the control group. Additionally, in the exposed groups, a significant higher level of E-cadherin was detected in the epithelium and the basal cell layer than in the control group, whereas regarding collagen type IV only in the basal cell layer a significant higher expression level was found.
The authors conclude, that extremely low frequency magnetic fields may be used in gingival diseases associated with defects in the epithelial barrier.

Study character:

Study funded by

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