Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Effects of pulsed and sinusoidal electromagnetic fields on MMP-2, MMP-9, collagen type IV and E-cadherin expression levels in the rat kidney: an immunohistochemical study. med./bio.

Published in: Anal Quant Cytopathol Histpathol 2013; 35 (5): 253-260

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To investigate the effects of pulsed and sinusoidal magnetic fields on the protein expression levels of E-cadherin, type IV collagen, matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 as well as histopathological changes in the rat kidney.

Background/further details

Rats were divided into three groups (n=9 per group): 1.) cage control, 2.) exposure to a pulsed magnetic field and 3.) exposure to a sinusoidal magnetic field.

Endpoint

Exposure

Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 50 Hz
Exposure duration: continuous for 6 h/day during 5 days a week for 28 days
Exposure 2: 50 Hz
Exposure duration: continuous for 6 h/day during 5 days a week for 28 days

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 50 Hz
Type
Waveform
Exposure duration continuous for 6 h/day during 5 days a week for 28 days
Additional info pulsed
Additional info pulse time 25 µs
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Chamber rats were exposed in methacrylate cages
Setup two pairs of Helmholtz coils in a Faraday cage (130 x 65 x 80 cm), magnet was constructed by winding 125 turns of insulated soft copper wire with adiameter of 1.5 mm, coils were placed vertically facing one another, distance between coils was 47 cm
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
magnetic flux density 1.5 mT - measured - -

Exposure 2

Main characteristics
Frequency 50 Hz
Type
Waveform
Exposure duration continuous for 6 h/day during 5 days a week for 28 days
Additional info sinusoidal
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
magnetic flux density 1.5 mT - - - -

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Investigated organ system:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

In the cage control group, the histological examination revealed a normal structure of the kidneys. However, in the group exposed to pulsed magnetic fields, degenerative changes were observed in the renal tubuli as well as a thickening of the basement membranes and hemorrhage. In the group exposed to sinusoidal magnetic fields, hypertrophy of the glomeruli, narrowing of Bowman's space, inflammatory cell infilitration, degeneration of the renal tubuli and thickening of the basement membrane were found.
The protein expression levels of E-cadherin and matrix metalloproteinase-9 were significantly increased in both exposure groups in comparison to the cage control group. No significant differences were observed between the groups regarding the protein expression level of type IV collagen and matrix metalloproteinase-2.
The authors conclude that exposure to pulsed or sinusoidal magnetic fields could induce histopathological and molecular changes in the kidney of rats.

Study character:

Study funded by

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