Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Effects of long term exposure to a 2G cell phone radiation (900 - 1900 MHz) on mouse testis. med./bio.

Published in: Int J Sci Res (Raipur) 2014; 3 (9): 523-529

Aim of study (acc. to author)

The effects of chronic exposure of mice to a 900-1900 MHz electromagnetic field (2G) on testes should be investigated.

Background/further details

21-days-old mice were divided into the following groups (n=3 each): exposure to the electromagnetic field for 1) 30, 2) 60, 3) 90, 4) 120, 5) 150 and 6) 180 days. For each exposure group, a separate sham exposure group (n=3 mice each) was used. Mice were sacrificed 24 hours after the end of exposure, respectively.

Endpoint

Exposure

Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 900–1,900 MHz
Exposure duration: intermittent 2 minutes every half an hour (total of 48 minutes per day) for 30 days
  • SAR: 1.69 W/kg
Exposure 2: 900–1,900 MHz
Exposure duration: intermittent 2 minutes every half an hour (total of 48 minutes per day) for 60 days
  • SAR: 1.69 W/kg
Exposure 3: 900–1,900 MHz
Exposure duration: intermittent 2 minutes every half an hour (total of 48 minutes per day) for 90 days
  • SAR: 1.69 W/kg
Exposure 4: 900–1,900 MHz
Exposure duration: intermittent 2 minutes every half an hour (total of 48 minutes per day) for 120 days
  • SAR: 1.69 W/kg
Exposure 5: 900–1,900 MHz
Exposure duration: intermittent 2 minutes every half an hour (total of 48 minutes per day) for 150 days
  • SAR: 1.69 W/kg
Exposure 6: 900–1,900 MHz
Exposure duration: intermittent 2 minutes every half an hour (total of 48 minutes per day) for 180 days
  • SAR: 1.69 W/kg

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 900–1,900 MHz
Type
Exposure duration intermittent 2 minutes every half an hour (total of 48 minutes per day) for 30 days
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Chamber cages with a temperature of 22 ± 1°C and 60% relative humidity
Setup 18 mice were exposed in a cage; cell phone was placed under cage roof at a distance of 5 cm to the floor; phone was put in non-vibrating, silent, do not disturb (DND) and auto answer activated mode and was rung upon from another cell phone
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
SAR 1.69 W/kg - measured 10 g -

Exposure 2

Main characteristics
Frequency 900–1,900 MHz
Type
Exposure duration intermittent 2 minutes every half an hour (total of 48 minutes per day) for 60 days
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
SAR 1.69 W/kg - measured 10 g -

Exposure 3

Main characteristics
Frequency 900–1,900 MHz
Type
Exposure duration intermittent 2 minutes every half an hour (total of 48 minutes per day) for 90 days
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
SAR 1.69 W/kg - measured 10 g -

Exposure 4

Main characteristics
Frequency 900–1,900 MHz
Type
Exposure duration intermittent 2 minutes every half an hour (total of 48 minutes per day) for 120 days
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
SAR 1.69 W/kg - measured 10 g -

Exposure 5

Main characteristics
Frequency 900–1,900 MHz
Type
Exposure duration intermittent 2 minutes every half an hour (total of 48 minutes per day) for 150 days
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
SAR 1.69 W/kg - measured 10 g -

Exposure 6

Main characteristics
Frequency 900–1,900 MHz
Type
Exposure duration intermittent 2 minutes every half an hour (total of 48 minutes per day) for 180 days
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
SAR 1.69 W/kg - measured 10 g -

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated material:
Investigated organ system:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

Body weight was significantly reduced after 30, 60 and 120 days of exposure (groups 1, 2 and 4), mean testis weight was significantly reduced in all exposure groups except for group 4 and the mean testis volume was significantly reduced in groups 1-3 compared to sham exposed mice.
In histological analysis, the mean density of seminiferous tubules was significantly lower in all exposure groups except for group 1, the mean seminiferous tubule diameter was significantly reduced in all exposure group except for group 2, and the numbers of Sertoli cells/tubule and Leydig cells was significantly reduced in all exposure groups compared to the sham exposure groups.
For Johnson testicular biopsy score count and testosterone level all exposure groups were pooled and a significantly reduced serum testosterone level and mild histological changes compared to sham exposed animals were found.
The authors conclude that chronic exposure of mice to a 900-1900 MHz electromagnetic field (2G) might have detrimental effects on testes histology and function with possible consequences for fertility.

Study character:

Study funded by

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