Study overviews

Experimental studies on the effects of young animals include studies with young animals prenatally or postnatally (before or after hatching) exposed to electromagnetic fields.

Young animals in this spirit means animals of the whole animal kingdom (but in this context mainly mammals and birds), exposed and investigated before their adulthood.

Studies where young animals are exposed but only investigated during their adulthood are not considered.

The graphics also include some experimental studies with children.

Experimental studies on the effects of low and radio frequency on young animals

654 studies in total
  1. 274 studies
  2. 203 studies
  3. 82 studies
  4. 36 studies
  5. 35 studies
  6. 16 studies
  7. 8 studies

Central nervous system

82 studies in total
  1. 60 studies
  2. 21 studies
  3. 2 studies
Authors Year Exposed system Endpoints Frequency range SAR Exposure duration Parameters
Movvahedi MM et al. 2014 human, partial body: ear - 900 MHz 1.45 W/kg - mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications
Narayanan SN et al. 2014 animal, rat/Wistar albino, whole body oxidative stress in the brain 890–915 MHz 1.58 W/kg intermittent for 1 h/day for 28 days mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications
Saikhedkar N et al. 2014 animal, rat/Wistar, whole body structure and function of the rat brain and oxidative stress 900 MHz 0.99 W/kg continuous for 4 h/day for 15 days mobile phone, mobile communications
Motawi TK et al. 2014 animal, rat/Wistar albino - 900 MHz - - mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications
Kesari KK et al. 2014 animal, rat/ Wistar, whole body DNA damage, protein expression, apoptosis and oxidative stress in brain 2,115 MHz 0.26–0.9 W/kg continuous for 2 hours/day for 60 days mobile phone, mobile communications
Haghani M et al. 2013 animal, rat/Wistar, whole body electrical activity of Purkinje cells, cerebellum-related behaviour 900 MHz 0.5–0.9 W/kg 6 h/day during whole gestation mobile phone, mobile communications, PW pulsed wave
Loughran SP et al. 2013 human, partial body: head waking EEG, cognitive performance 900 MHz 0.35–1.4 W/kg continuous for 30 min mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications, PW pulsed wave
Paulraj R et al. 2012 - - 16.5 GHz 2.01 W/kg continuous for 2 h/day at 35 days (6 days/week) low level microwaves, AM amplitude modulation
Paulraj R et al. 2012 - - 9.9 GHz 1 W/kg 2 h/day for 35 days microwaves, radar
Jing J et al. 2012 animal, rat/Wistar, whole body: antenna close to the ear level of neurotransmitters and oxidative stress in the brain - 0.9 W/kg 3 times per day (3 x 10, 30 or 60 min) for 20 days during gestation mobile phone, mobile communications, microwaves
Noor NA et al. 2011 animal, rat/albino amino acid neurotransmitter levels in different brain areas 900 MHz 1.165 W/kg continuous for 1 h/day for up to 4 months mobile phone, mobile communications
Leung S et al. 2011 human, partial body: left/right hemisphere event-related potentials and performance during oddball paradigma and n-back task 894.6 MHz 0.7–1.7 W/kg continuous for 55 min GSM, W-CDMA, mobile communications
Watilliaux A et al. 2011 animal, rat/Wistar, partial body: head (mainly) stress reaction and glial activation in the immature brain 1,800 MHz 0.13–2.5 W/kg continuous for 2 h on postnatal day 5, 15 or 35 GSM, mobile communications
Orendacova J et al. 2011 animal, rat/Wistar albino, whole body postnatal neurogenesis 2.45 GHz - continuous for 2 h on postnatal day 7 or day 28 microwaves, PW pulsed wave, 2.45 GHz
Ait-Aissa S et al. 2010 animal, rat/Wistar, whole body gliosis and apoptosis in the brains of young rats 2.45 GHz 0.08–9 W/kg continuous for 2 h/day, 5 days/week for 2 weeks (day 6 to day 21 of gestation) or 7 weeks (day 6 to day 21 of gestation + 5 weeks after birth) RF field, W-LAN/WiFi, 2.45 GHz
Ragbetli MC et al. 2010 animal, mouse/Swiss albino, whole body number of Purkinje cells and granule cells in the developing cerebellum 890–915 MHz 0.95 W/kg continuous for 12 hr/day - 11 hr + 45 min. in stand-by mode, 15 min. in talking mode - for 19 - 20 days druing gestation digital mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications, PW pulsed wave
Croft RJ et al. 2010 human, partial body: left/right hemisphere resting EEG (alpha waves) 894.6 MHz 0.7–1.7 W/kg continuous for 55 min GSM, W-CDMA, mobile communications
Güler G et al. 2010 animal, rabbit/New Zealand White, whole body lipid peroxidation and DNA damage in the brain 1,800 MHz - continuous for 15 min/day on 7 days - from day 15 to day 22 of gestation mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications
Khadrawy VA et al. 2009 animal, rat/albino - 900 MHz 1.165 W/kg continuous for 1 h/day for up to 4 months mobile phone, mobile communications
Bas O et al. 2009 animal, rat/Wistar albino, whole body neuronal development of hippocampus (number and histopathological changes of pyramidal cells in the cornu ammonis) 900 MHz 2 W/kg continuous during gestation (19 days) mobile phone, mobile communications, RF field
Ragbetli MC et al. 2009 animal, mouse/Swiss albino, whole body number of pyramidal cells in the Cornu Ammonis 890–915 MHz 1.2 W/kg 12 hr/day for 19 - 20 days (gestation period) + 20 days after birth (female offspring only) mobile phone, digital mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications
Odaci E et al. 2008 animal, rat/Wistar albino, partial body: maternal head histopathology of the hippocampus, number of granule cells in the dentate gyrus 900 MHz 2 W/kg 60 min/day, from the first to the last day of gestation mobile communications
Ushiyama A et al. 2007 animal, rat/Sprague-Dawley effects on blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier permeability 1.5 GHz 0.5–10.4 W/kg continuous for 30 min PDC, TDMA, mobile communications
Kumlin T et al. 2007 animal, rat/Wistar, whole body brain development 900 MHz 0.3–3 W/kg repeated daily exposure, 2 h/day, 5 days/week, for 5 weeks digital mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications
Paulraj R et al. 2006 animal, rat/Wistar, whole body morphological changes and protein kinase C enzyme activity in the developing rat brain 2.45 GHz 0.11 W/kg continuous for 2 h/day on 35 days microwave pulses, 2.45 GHz