Study overviews

Experimental studies on the effects of young animals include studies with young animals prenatally or postnatally (before or after hatching) exposed to electromagnetic fields.

Young animals in this spirit means animals of the whole animal kingdom (but in this context mainly mammals and birds), exposed and investigated before their adulthood.

Studies where young animals are exposed but only investigated during their adulthood are not considered.

The graphics also include some experimental studies with children.

Experimental studies on the effects of low and radio frequency on young animals

650 studies in total
  1. 274 studies
  2. 200 studies
  3. 81 studies
  4. 36 studies
  5. 35 studies
  6. 16 studies
  7. 8 studies

Central nervous system

81 studies in total
  1. 60 studies
  2. 20 studies
  3. 2 studies
Authors Year Exposed system Endpoints Frequency range SAR Exposure duration Parameters
Croft RJ et al. 2010 human, partial body: left/right hemisphere resting EEG (alpha waves) 894.6 MHz 0.7–1.7 W/kg continuous for 55 min GSM, W-CDMA, mobile communications
Leung S et al. 2011 human, partial body: left/right hemisphere event-related potentials and performance during oddball paradigma and n-back task 894.6 MHz 0.7–1.7 W/kg continuous for 55 min GSM, W-CDMA, mobile communications
Kramarenko AV et al. 2003 human, partial body: ear EEG 100 MHz - - GSM, mobile communications
Krause CM et al. 2006 human, partial body: head oscillatory EEG responses during cognitive processing in children 902 MHz 1.4–1.98 W/kg continuous for 30 min GSM, mobile communications
Watilliaux A et al. 2011 animal, rat/Wistar, partial body: head (mainly) stress reaction and glial activation in the immature brain 1,800 MHz 0.13–2.5 W/kg continuous for 2 h on postnatal day 5, 15 or 35 GSM, mobile communications
Guler G et al. 2016 animal, rabbit/New Zealand White, whole body - 1,800 MHz 18 mW/kg - GSM, mobile communications
Ushiyama A et al. 2007 animal, rat/Sprague-Dawley effects on blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier permeability 1.5 GHz 0.5–10.4 W/kg continuous for 30 min PDC, TDMA, mobile communications
Kim JH et al. 2021 - - 1,760–1,850 MHz - - RF field
Ait-Aissa S et al. 2010 animal, rat/Wistar, whole body gliosis and apoptosis in the brains of young rats 2.45 GHz 0.08–9 W/kg continuous for 2 h/day, 5 days/week for 2 weeks (day 6 to day 21 of gestation) or 7 weeks (day 6 to day 21 of gestation + 5 weeks after birth) RF field, W-LAN/WiFi, 2.45 GHz
Yip YP et al. 1995 animal, chicken/White Leghorn, whole body: <i>in ovo</i> - 15 Hz - continuous for 6 hr RF field, magnetic field, static magnetic field, MRI
Furtado-Filho OV et al. 2015 animal, rat, whole body oxidative damages of DNA, proteins and lipids in the cortex 950 MHz 0.35–1.32 W/kg continuous for 30 min/day from the first day of gestation until birth UHF fields
Othman H et al. 2017 animal, rat/Wistar albino (embryo), whole body mental development and oxidative stress in brain of rat pups 2.45 GHz - 2 hours/day during gestation W-LAN/WiFi, RF field, 2.45 GHz
Kumlin T et al. 2007 animal, rat/Wistar, whole body brain development 900 MHz 0.3–3 W/kg repeated daily exposure, 2 h/day, 5 days/week, for 5 weeks digital mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications
Ragbetli MC et al. 2010 animal, mouse/Swiss albino, whole body number of Purkinje cells and granule cells in the developing cerebellum 890–915 MHz 0.95 W/kg continuous for 12 hr/day - 11 hr + 45 min. in stand-by mode, 15 min. in talking mode - for 19 - 20 days druing gestation digital mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications, PW pulsed wave
Masuda H et al. 2015 - - 1,457 MHz - - digital mobile phone, mobile communications, microwaves
Paulraj R et al. 2012 - - 16.5 GHz 2.01 W/kg continuous for 2 h/day at 35 days (6 days/week) low level microwaves, AM amplitude modulation
Paulraj R et al. 2006 animal, rat/Wistar, whole body morphological changes and protein kinase C enzyme activity in the developing rat brain 2.45 GHz 0.11 W/kg continuous for 2 h/day on 35 days microwave pulses, 2.45 GHz
Sharma A et al. 2016 - - 10 GHz - - microwaves
Sharma A et al. 2017 - - 10 GHz - - microwaves
Albert EN et al. 1981 animal, squirrel monkey (<i>Saimiri sciureus</i>), whole body density of Purkinje cells in the cerebellar uvula 2.45 GHz 3.4 mW/g 3 h/day from the thirty-fifth day of gestation + 9.5 months after birth microwaves, CW continuous wave, 2.45 GHz
Albert EN et al. 1981 animal, rat/Sprague-Dawley, whole body density of Purkinje cells in developing rat brains 100 MHz 2–2.77 mW/g 21 h/day for 5 days microwaves, CW continuous wave, 2.45 GHz
Albert EN et al. 1988 - - - - - microwaves, CW continuous wave, 2.45 GHz
Merritt JH et al. 1984 animal, rat/Sprague-Dawley, whole body: in utero brain development 2.45 GHz 400 µW/g repeated daily exposure, 24 h/day for 16 days microwaves, PW pulsed wave, 2.45 GHz
Drecun M et al. 1990 animal, rat/Wistar, partial body: head EEG 2.45 GHz - continuous for two weeks; started on the sixth day after birth microwaves, PW pulsed wave, 2.45 GHz
Orendacova J et al. 2011 animal, rat/Wistar albino, whole body postnatal neurogenesis 2.45 GHz - continuous for 2 h on postnatal day 7 or day 28 microwaves, PW pulsed wave, 2.45 GHz
Chiang H et al. 1987 - - 3 GHz 3.5 mW/g repeated daily exposure, 5 h/day, see add. information microwaves, low level microwaves, PW pulsed wave
Inaloz SS et al. 1997 animal, rat/Wistar, whole body histological changes of the brain of the dams and their offspring 2.45 GHz 2.3 mW/g NIR15: 15 min/day, NIR30: 30 min/day from gestation to day of birth (21st or 22nd day after gest.) microwaves, microw. oven/heating device
Paulraj R et al. 2012 - - 9.9 GHz 1 W/kg 2 h/day for 35 days microwaves, radar
Odaci E et al. 2008 animal, rat/Wistar albino, partial body: maternal head histopathology of the hippocampus, number of granule cells in the dentate gyrus 900 MHz 2 W/kg 60 min/day, from the first to the last day of gestation mobile communications
Aslan A et al. 2017 animal, rat/Sprague Dawley, whole body cerebellar morphology 900 MHz 0.01 W/kg 1 hour/day for 25 consecutive days mobile communications, mobile phone
Akakin D et al. 2021 animal, rat/Wistar (<i>in utero</i> and young animals) - 1,800 MHz - - mobile communications, mobile phone
Azimzadeh M et al. 2020 animal, rat/Sprague Dawley - 900 MHz - - mobile communications, mobile phone base station
Lameth J et al. 2017 - - 1,800 MHz - - mobile communications, mobile phone, GSM, PW pulsed wave
Ahmed NA et al. 2018 - - 1,800 MHz - - mobile communications, mobile phone, PW pulsed wave
Keleş Aİ et al. 2019 - - 900 MHz - - mobile communications, mobile phone, RF field, CW continuous wave
Güler G et al. 2010 animal, rabbit/New Zealand White, whole body lipid peroxidation and DNA damage in the brain 1,800 MHz - continuous for 15 min/day on 7 days - from day 15 to day 22 of gestation mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications
Motawi TK et al. 2014 animal, rat/Wistar albino - 900 MHz - - mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications
Narayanan SN et al. 2014 animal, rat/Wistar albino, whole body oxidative stress in the brain 890–915 MHz 1.58 W/kg intermittent for 1 h/day for 28 days mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications
Movvahedi MM et al. 2014 human, partial body: ear - 900 MHz 1.45 W/kg - mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications
Loughran SP et al. 2013 human, partial body: head waking EEG, cognitive performance 900 MHz 0.35–1.4 W/kg continuous for 30 min mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications, PW pulsed wave
Narayanan SN et al. 2015 animal, rat/Wistar, whole body neural structure of the hippocampus, learning and spatial memory 900 MHz 1.15 W/kg continuous for 1 h/day for 28 days mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications, RF field
Petitdant N et al. 2016 - - 900 MHz - - mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications, RF field, PW pulsed wave, co-exposure
Bhargav H et al. 2016 human - 2,100 MHz 0.4–0.54 W/kg - mobile phone, UMTS, mobile communications
Ragbetli MC et al. 2009 animal, mouse/Swiss albino, whole body number of pyramidal cells in the Cornu Ammonis 890–915 MHz 1.2 W/kg 12 hr/day for 19 - 20 days (gestation period) + 20 days after birth (female offspring only) mobile phone, digital mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications
Noor NA et al. 2011 animal, rat/albino amino acid neurotransmitter levels in different brain areas 900 MHz 1.165 W/kg continuous for 1 h/day for up to 4 months mobile phone, mobile communications
Khadrawy VA et al. 2009 animal, rat/albino - 900 MHz 1.165 W/kg continuous for 1 h/day for up to 4 months mobile phone, mobile communications
Kesari KK et al. 2014 animal, rat/ Wistar, whole body DNA damage, protein expression, apoptosis and oxidative stress in brain 2,115 MHz 0.26–0.9 W/kg continuous for 2 hours/day for 60 days mobile phone, mobile communications
Razavinasab M et al. 2016 animal, rat/Wistar, whole body electrophysiological changes of pyramidal cells, learning and memory 900 MHz 0.3–0.9 W/kg 6 h/day during gestation mobile phone, mobile communications
Saikhedkar N et al. 2014 animal, rat/Wistar, whole body structure and function of the rat brain and oxidative stress 900 MHz 0.99 W/kg continuous for 4 h/day for 15 days mobile phone, mobile communications
Sahin A et al. 2015 invertebrate, rat/Sprague Dawley, whole body - 900 MHz 0.024 W/kg - mobile phone, mobile communications