Study overviews

Experimental studies on the effects of young animals include studies with young animals prenatally or postnatally (before or after hatching) exposed to electromagnetic fields.

Young animals in this spirit means animals of the whole animal kingdom (but in this context mainly mammals and birds), exposed and investigated before their adulthood.

Studies where young animals are exposed but only investigated during their adulthood are not considered.

The graphics also include some experimental studies with children.

Experimental studies on the effects of low and radio frequency on young animals

654 studies in total
  1. 274 studies
  2. 203 studies
  3. 82 studies
  4. 36 studies
  5. 35 studies
  6. 16 studies
  7. 8 studies

Central nervous system

82 studies in total
  1. 60 studies
  2. 21 studies
  3. 2 studies
Authors Year Exposed system Endpoints Frequency range SAR Exposure duration Parameters
Inaloz SS et al. 1997 animal, rat/Wistar, whole body histological changes of the brain of the dams and their offspring 2.45 GHz 2.3 mW/g NIR15: 15 min/day, NIR30: 30 min/day from gestation to day of birth (21st or 22nd day after gest.) microwaves, microw. oven/heating device
Jing J et al. 2012 animal, rat/Wistar, whole body: antenna close to the ear level of neurotransmitters and oxidative stress in the brain - 0.9 W/kg 3 times per day (3 x 10, 30 or 60 min) for 20 days during gestation mobile phone, mobile communications, microwaves
Keleş Aİ et al. 2019 - - 900 MHz - - mobile communications, mobile phone, RF field, CW continuous wave
Kerimoglu G et al. 2016 - - 900 MHz - - mobile phone, mobile communications, RF field
Kesari KK et al. 2014 animal, rat/ Wistar, whole body DNA damage, protein expression, apoptosis and oxidative stress in brain 2,115 MHz 0.26–0.9 W/kg continuous for 2 hours/day for 60 days mobile phone, mobile communications
Khadrawy VA et al. 2009 animal, rat/albino - 900 MHz 1.165 W/kg continuous for 1 h/day for up to 4 months mobile phone, mobile communications
Kim JH et al. 2021 - - 1,760–1,850 MHz - - RF field
Kramarenko AV et al. 2003 human, partial body: ear EEG 100 MHz - - GSM, mobile communications
Krause CM et al. 2006 human, partial body: head oscillatory EEG responses during cognitive processing in children 902 MHz 1.4–1.98 W/kg continuous for 30 min GSM, mobile communications
Kumlin T et al. 2007 animal, rat/Wistar, whole body brain development 900 MHz 0.3–3 W/kg repeated daily exposure, 2 h/day, 5 days/week, for 5 weeks digital mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications