Study overviews

Experimental studies on the effects of young animals include studies with young animals prenatally or postnatally (before or after hatching) exposed to electromagnetic fields.

Young animals in this spirit means animals of the whole animal kingdom (but in this context mainly mammals and birds), exposed and investigated before their adulthood.

Studies where young animals are exposed but only investigated during their adulthood are not considered.

The graphics also include some experimental studies with children.

Experimental studies on the effects of low and radio frequency on young animals

650 studies in total
  1. 274 studies
  2. 200 studies
  3. 81 studies
  4. 36 studies
  5. 35 studies
  6. 16 studies
  7. 8 studies

Central nervous system

81 studies in total
  1. 60 studies
  2. 20 studies
  3. 2 studies
Authors Year Exposed system Endpoints Frequency range SAR Exposure duration Parameters
Ragbetli MC et al. 2010 animal, mouse/Swiss albino, whole body number of Purkinje cells and granule cells in the developing cerebellum 890–915 MHz 0.95 W/kg continuous for 12 hr/day - 11 hr + 45 min. in stand-by mode, 15 min. in talking mode - for 19 - 20 days druing gestation digital mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications, PW pulsed wave
Güler G et al. 2010 animal, rabbit/New Zealand White, whole body lipid peroxidation and DNA damage in the brain 1,800 MHz - continuous for 15 min/day on 7 days - from day 15 to day 22 of gestation mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications
Guler G et al. 2016 animal, rabbit/New Zealand White, whole body - 1,800 MHz 18 mW/kg - GSM, mobile communications
Furtado-Filho OV et al. 2015 animal, rat, whole body oxidative damages of DNA, proteins and lipids in the cortex 950 MHz 0.35–1.32 W/kg continuous for 30 min/day from the first day of gestation until birth UHF fields
Kesari KK et al. 2014 animal, rat/ Wistar, whole body DNA damage, protein expression, apoptosis and oxidative stress in brain 2,115 MHz 0.26–0.9 W/kg continuous for 2 hours/day for 60 days mobile phone, mobile communications
Azimzadeh M et al. 2020 animal, rat/Sprague Dawley - 900 MHz - - mobile communications, mobile phone base station
Aslan A et al. 2017 animal, rat/Sprague Dawley, whole body cerebellar morphology 900 MHz 0.01 W/kg 1 hour/day for 25 consecutive days mobile communications, mobile phone
Ushiyama A et al. 2007 animal, rat/Sprague-Dawley effects on blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier permeability 1.5 GHz 0.5–10.4 W/kg continuous for 30 min PDC, TDMA, mobile communications
Albert EN et al. 1981 animal, rat/Sprague-Dawley, whole body density of Purkinje cells in developing rat brains 100 MHz 2–2.77 mW/g 21 h/day for 5 days microwaves, CW continuous wave, 2.45 GHz
Merritt JH et al. 1984 animal, rat/Sprague-Dawley, whole body: in utero brain development 2.45 GHz 400 µW/g repeated daily exposure, 24 h/day for 16 days microwaves, PW pulsed wave, 2.45 GHz