Study overviews

Experimental studies on the effects of young animals include studies with young animals prenatally or postnatally (before or after hatching) exposed to electromagnetic fields.

Young animals in this spirit means animals of the whole animal kingdom (but in this context mainly mammals and birds), exposed and investigated before their adulthood.

Studies where young animals are exposed but only investigated during their adulthood are not considered.

The graphics also include some experimental studies with children.

Experimental studies on the effects of low and radio frequency on young animals

654 studies in total
  1. 274 studies
  2. 203 studies
  3. 82 studies
  4. 36 studies
  5. 35 studies
  6. 16 studies
  7. 8 studies

Central nervous system

82 studies in total
  1. 60 studies
  2. 21 studies
  3. 2 studies
Authors Year Exposed system Endpoints Frequency range SAR Exposure duration Parameters
Ragbetli MC et al. 2010 animal, mouse/Swiss albino, whole body number of Purkinje cells and granule cells in the developing cerebellum 890–915 MHz 0.95 W/kg continuous for 12 hr/day - 11 hr + 45 min. in stand-by mode, 15 min. in talking mode - for 19 - 20 days druing gestation digital mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications, PW pulsed wave
Croft RJ et al. 2010 human, partial body: left/right hemisphere resting EEG (alpha waves) 894.6 MHz 0.7–1.7 W/kg continuous for 55 min GSM, W-CDMA, mobile communications
Güler G et al. 2010 animal, rabbit/New Zealand White, whole body lipid peroxidation and DNA damage in the brain 1,800 MHz - continuous for 15 min/day on 7 days - from day 15 to day 22 of gestation mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications
Khadrawy VA et al. 2009 animal, rat/albino - 900 MHz 1.165 W/kg continuous for 1 h/day for up to 4 months mobile phone, mobile communications
Bas O et al. 2009 animal, rat/Wistar albino, whole body neuronal development of hippocampus (number and histopathological changes of pyramidal cells in the cornu ammonis) 900 MHz 2 W/kg continuous during gestation (19 days) mobile phone, mobile communications, RF field
Ragbetli MC et al. 2009 animal, mouse/Swiss albino, whole body number of pyramidal cells in the Cornu Ammonis 890–915 MHz 1.2 W/kg 12 hr/day for 19 - 20 days (gestation period) + 20 days after birth (female offspring only) mobile phone, digital mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications
Odaci E et al. 2008 animal, rat/Wistar albino, partial body: maternal head histopathology of the hippocampus, number of granule cells in the dentate gyrus 900 MHz 2 W/kg 60 min/day, from the first to the last day of gestation mobile communications
Ushiyama A et al. 2007 animal, rat/Sprague-Dawley effects on blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier permeability 1.5 GHz 0.5–10.4 W/kg continuous for 30 min PDC, TDMA, mobile communications
Kumlin T et al. 2007 animal, rat/Wistar, whole body brain development 900 MHz 0.3–3 W/kg repeated daily exposure, 2 h/day, 5 days/week, for 5 weeks digital mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications
Paulraj R et al. 2006 animal, rat/Wistar, whole body morphological changes and protein kinase C enzyme activity in the developing rat brain 2.45 GHz 0.11 W/kg continuous for 2 h/day on 35 days microwave pulses, 2.45 GHz