Study overviews

Experimental studies on the effects of young animals include studies with young animals prenatally or postnatally (before or after hatching) exposed to electromagnetic fields.

Young animals in this spirit means animals of the whole animal kingdom (but in this context mainly mammals and birds), exposed and investigated before their adulthood.

Studies where young animals are exposed but only investigated during their adulthood are not considered.

The graphics also include some experimental studies with children.

Experimental studies on the effects of low and radio frequency on young animals

685 studies in total
  1. 275 studies
  2. 227 studies
  3. 83 studies
  4. 40 studies
  5. 38 studies
  6. 14 studies
  7. 8 studies

Central nervous system

83 studies in total
  1. 61 studies
  2. 21 studies
  3. 2 studies
Authors Year Exposed system Endpoints Frequency range SAR Exposure duration Parameters
Drecun M et al. 1990 animal, rat/Wistar, partial body: head EEG 2.45 GHz - continuous for two weeks; started on the sixth day after birth microwaves, PW pulsed wave, 2.45 GHz
Watilliaux A et al. 2011 animal, rat/Wistar, partial body: head (mainly) stress reaction and glial activation in the immature brain 1,800 MHz 0.13–2.5 W/kg continuous for 2 h on postnatal day 5, 15 or 35 GSM, mobile communications
Inaloz SS et al. 1997 animal, rat/Wistar, whole body histological changes of the brain of the dams and their offspring 2.45 GHz 2.3 mW/g NIR15: 15 min/day, NIR30: 30 min/day from gestation to day of birth (21st or 22nd day after gest.) microwaves, microw. oven/heating device
Kumlin T et al. 2007 animal, rat/Wistar, whole body brain development 900 MHz 0.3–3 W/kg repeated daily exposure, 2 h/day, 5 days/week, for 5 weeks digital mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications
Ait-Aissa S et al. 2010 animal, rat/Wistar, whole body gliosis and apoptosis in the brains of young rats 2.45 GHz 0.08–9 W/kg continuous for 2 h/day, 5 days/week for 2 weeks (day 6 to day 21 of gestation) or 7 weeks (day 6 to day 21 of gestation + 5 weeks after birth) RF field, W-LAN/WiFi, 2.45 GHz
Paulraj R et al. 2006 animal, rat/Wistar, whole body morphological changes and protein kinase C enzyme activity in the developing rat brain 2.45 GHz 0.11 W/kg continuous for 2 h/day on 35 days microwave pulses, 2.45 GHz
Haghani M et al. 2013 animal, rat/Wistar, whole body electrical activity of Purkinje cells, cerebellum-related behaviour 900 MHz 0.5–0.9 W/kg 6 h/day during whole gestation mobile phone, mobile communications, PW pulsed wave
Razavinasab M et al. 2016 animal, rat/Wistar, whole body electrophysiological changes of pyramidal cells, learning and memory 900 MHz 0.3–0.9 W/kg 6 h/day during gestation mobile phone, mobile communications
Saikhedkar N et al. 2014 animal, rat/Wistar, whole body structure and function of the rat brain and oxidative stress 900 MHz 0.99 W/kg continuous for 4 h/day for 15 days mobile phone, mobile communications
Narayanan SN et al. 2015 animal, rat/Wistar, whole body neural structure of the hippocampus, learning and spatial memory 900 MHz 1.15 W/kg continuous for 1 h/day for 28 days mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications, RF field