Study overviews

Experimental studies on the effects of young animals include studies with young animals prenatally or postnatally (before or after hatching) exposed to electromagnetic fields.

Young animals in this spirit means animals of the whole animal kingdom (but in this context mainly mammals and birds), exposed and investigated before their adulthood.

Studies where young animals are exposed but only investigated during their adulthood are not considered.

The graphics also include some experimental studies with children.

Experimental studies on the effects of low and radio frequency on young animals

662 studies in total
  1. 276 studies
  2. 206 studies
  3. 83 studies
  4. 37 studies
  5. 36 studies
  6. 16 studies
  7. 8 studies

Central nervous system

83 studies in total
  1. 61 studies
  2. 21 studies
  3. 2 studies
Authors Year Exposed system Endpoints Frequency range SAR Exposure duration Parameters
Guler G et al. 2016 animal, rabbit/New Zealand White, whole body - 1,800 MHz 18 mW/kg - GSM, mobile communications
Xu F et al. 2016 - - 1,800 MHz - - mobile phone, mobile communications
Lameth J et al. 2017 animal, rat/Wistar (adults and pubs), partial body - 1,800 MHz - - mobile communications, mobile phone, GSM, PW pulsed wave
Zhang JP et al. 2017 animal, mouse/C57BL/6, whole body - 1.8 GHz - - mobile phone, mobile communications, RF field
Ahmed NA et al. 2018 animal, rat/Wistar albino (adults and young animal) - 1,800 MHz - - mobile communications, mobile phone, PW pulsed wave
Akakin D et al. 2021 animal, rat/Wistar (<i>in utero</i> and young animals) - 1,800 MHz - - mobile communications, mobile phone
Bhargav H et al. 2016 human - 2,100 MHz 0.4–0.54 W/kg - mobile phone, UMTS, mobile communications
Kesari KK et al. 2014 animal, rat/ Wistar, whole body DNA damage, protein expression, apoptosis and oxidative stress in brain 2,115 MHz 0.26–0.9 W/kg continuous for 2 hours/day for 60 days mobile phone, mobile communications
Albert EN et al. 1981 animal, squirrel monkey (<i>Saimiri sciureus</i>), whole body density of Purkinje cells in the cerebellar uvula 2.45 GHz 3.4 mW/g 3 h/day from the thirty-fifth day of gestation + 9.5 months after birth microwaves, CW continuous wave, 2.45 GHz
Inaloz SS et al. 1997 animal, rat/Wistar, whole body histological changes of the brain of the dams and their offspring 2.45 GHz 2.3 mW/g NIR15: 15 min/day, NIR30: 30 min/day from gestation to day of birth (21st or 22nd day after gest.) microwaves, microw. oven/heating device