Study overviews

Experimental studies on the effects of young animals include studies with young animals prenatally or postnatally (before or after hatching) exposed to electromagnetic fields.

Young animals in this spirit means animals of the whole animal kingdom (but in this context mainly mammals and birds), exposed and investigated before their adulthood.

Studies where young animals are exposed but only investigated during their adulthood are not considered.

The graphics also include some experimental studies with children.

Experimental studies on the effects of low and radio frequency on young animals

649 studies in total
  1. 274 studies
  2. 200 studies
  3. 80 studies
  4. 36 studies
  5. 35 studies
  6. 16 studies
  7. 8 studies

Central nervous system

80 studies in total
  1. 59 studies
  2. 20 studies
  3. 2 studies
Authors Year Exposed system Endpoints Frequency range SAR Exposure duration Parameters
Saikhedkar N et al. 2014 animal, rat/Wistar, whole body structure and function of the rat brain and oxidative stress 900 MHz 0.99 W/kg continuous for 4 h/day for 15 days mobile phone, mobile communications
Croft RJ et al. 2010 human, partial body: left/right hemisphere resting EEG (alpha waves) 894.6 MHz 0.7–1.7 W/kg continuous for 55 min GSM, W-CDMA, mobile communications
Leung S et al. 2011 human, partial body: left/right hemisphere event-related potentials and performance during oddball paradigma and n-back task 894.6 MHz 0.7–1.7 W/kg continuous for 55 min GSM, W-CDMA, mobile communications
Yip YP et al. 1995 animal, chicken/White Leghorn, whole body: <i>in ovo</i> - 15 Hz - continuous for 6 hr RF field, magnetic field, static magnetic field, MRI
Drecun M et al. 1990 animal, rat/Wistar, partial body: head EEG 2.45 GHz - continuous for two weeks; started on the sixth day after birth microwaves, PW pulsed wave, 2.45 GHz
Narayanan SN et al. 2014 animal, rat/Wistar albino, whole body oxidative stress in the brain 890–915 MHz 1.58 W/kg intermittent for 1 h/day for 28 days mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications
Kumlin T et al. 2007 animal, rat/Wistar, whole body brain development 900 MHz 0.3–3 W/kg repeated daily exposure, 2 h/day, 5 days/week, for 5 weeks digital mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications
Merritt JH et al. 1984 animal, rat/Sprague-Dawley, whole body: in utero brain development 2.45 GHz 400 µW/g repeated daily exposure, 24 h/day for 16 days microwaves, PW pulsed wave, 2.45 GHz
Chiang H et al. 1987 - - 3 GHz 3.5 mW/g repeated daily exposure, 5 h/day, see add. information microwaves, low level microwaves, PW pulsed wave