Study overviews

Experimental studies on the effects of young animals include studies with young animals prenatally or postnatally (before or after hatching) exposed to electromagnetic fields.

Young animals in this spirit means animals of the whole animal kingdom (but in this context mainly mammals and birds), exposed and investigated before their adulthood.

Studies where young animals are exposed but only investigated during their adulthood are not considered.

The graphics also include some experimental studies with children.

Experimental studies on the effects of low and radio frequency on young animals

649 studies in total
  1. 274 studies
  2. 200 studies
  3. 80 studies
  4. 36 studies
  5. 35 studies
  6. 16 studies
  7. 8 studies

Central nervous system

80 studies in total
  1. 59 studies
  2. 20 studies
  3. 2 studies
Authors Year Exposed system Endpoints Frequency range SAR Exposure duration Parameters
Albert EN et al. 1988 - - - - - microwaves, CW continuous wave, 2.45 GHz
Chiang H et al. 1987 - - 3 GHz 3.5 mW/g repeated daily exposure, 5 h/day, see add. information microwaves, low level microwaves, PW pulsed wave
Paulraj R et al. 2012 - - 9.9 GHz 1 W/kg 2 h/day for 35 days microwaves, radar
Paulraj R et al. 2012 - - 16.5 GHz 2.01 W/kg continuous for 2 h/day at 35 days (6 days/week) low level microwaves, AM amplitude modulation
Masuda H et al. 2015 - - 1,457 MHz - - digital mobile phone, mobile communications, microwaves
Odaci E et al. 2016 - - - - - mobile phone, mobile communications, RF field
Ikinci A et al. 2016 - - 900 MHz - - mobile phone, mobile communications
Petitdant N et al. 2016 - - 900 MHz - - mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications, RF field, PW pulsed wave, co-exposure
Kerimoglu G et al. 2016 - - 900 MHz - - mobile phone, mobile communications, RF field
Xu F et al. 2016 - - 1,800 MHz - - mobile phone, mobile communications
Sharma A et al. 2016 - - 10 GHz - - microwaves
An K et al. 2015 - - 900 MHz - - mobile phone, mobile communications, co-exposure
Sharma A et al. 2017 - - 10 GHz - - microwaves
Lameth J et al. 2017 - - 1,800 MHz - - mobile communications, mobile phone, GSM, PW pulsed wave
Zhang JP et al. 2017 - - 1.8 GHz - - mobile phone, mobile communications, RF field
Ahmed NA et al. 2018 - - 1,800 MHz - - mobile communications, mobile phone, PW pulsed wave
Keleş Aİ et al. 2019 - - 900 MHz - - mobile communications, mobile phone, RF field, CW continuous wave
Yip YP et al. 1995 animal, chicken/White Leghorn, whole body: <i>in ovo</i> - 15 Hz - continuous for 6 hr RF field, magnetic field, static magnetic field, MRI
Ragbetli MC et al. 2009 animal, mouse/Swiss albino, whole body number of pyramidal cells in the Cornu Ammonis 890–915 MHz 1.2 W/kg 12 hr/day for 19 - 20 days (gestation period) + 20 days after birth (female offspring only) mobile phone, digital mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications
Ragbetli MC et al. 2010 animal, mouse/Swiss albino, whole body number of Purkinje cells and granule cells in the developing cerebellum 890–915 MHz 0.95 W/kg continuous for 12 hr/day - 11 hr + 45 min. in stand-by mode, 15 min. in talking mode - for 19 - 20 days druing gestation digital mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications, PW pulsed wave
Güler G et al. 2010 animal, rabbit/New Zealand White, whole body lipid peroxidation and DNA damage in the brain 1,800 MHz - continuous for 15 min/day on 7 days - from day 15 to day 22 of gestation mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications
Guler G et al. 2016 animal, rabbit/New Zealand White, whole body - 1,800 MHz 18 mW/kg - GSM, mobile communications
Furtado-Filho OV et al. 2015 animal, rat, whole body oxidative damages of DNA, proteins and lipids in the cortex 950 MHz 0.35–1.32 W/kg continuous for 30 min/day from the first day of gestation until birth UHF fields
Kesari KK et al. 2014 animal, rat/ Wistar, whole body DNA damage, protein expression, apoptosis and oxidative stress in brain 2,115 MHz 0.26–0.9 W/kg continuous for 2 hours/day for 60 days mobile phone, mobile communications
Azimzadeh M et al. 2020 animal, rat/Sprague Dawley - 900 MHz - - mobile communications, mobile phone base station