Study overviews

Experimental studies on the effects of young animals include studies with young animals prenatally or postnatally (before or after hatching) exposed to electromagnetic fields.

Young animals in this spirit means animals of the whole animal kingdom (but in this context mainly mammals and birds), exposed and investigated before their adulthood.

Studies where young animals are exposed but only investigated during their adulthood are not considered.

The graphics also include some experimental studies with children.

Experimental studies on the effects of low and radio frequency on young animals

648 studies in total
  1. 274 studies
  2. 200 studies
  3. 79 studies
  4. 36 studies
  5. 35 studies
  6. 16 studies
  7. 8 studies

Central nervous system

79 studies in total
  1. 59 studies
  2. 19 studies
  3. 2 studies
Authors Year Exposed system Endpoints Frequency range SAR Exposure duration Parameters
Ahmed NA et al. 2018 - - 1,800 MHz - - mobile communications, mobile phone, PW pulsed wave
Ait-Aissa S et al. 2010 animal, rat/Wistar, whole body gliosis and apoptosis in the brains of young rats 2.45 GHz 0.08–9 W/kg continuous for 2 h/day, 5 days/week for 2 weeks (day 6 to day 21 of gestation) or 7 weeks (day 6 to day 21 of gestation + 5 weeks after birth) RF field, W-LAN/WiFi, 2.45 GHz
Akakin D et al. 2020 animal, rat/Wistar (<i>in utero</i> and young animals) - 1,800 MHz - - mobile communications, mobile phone
Albert EN et al. 1981 animal, squirrel monkey (<i>Saimiri sciureus</i>), whole body density of Purkinje cells in the cerebellar uvula 2.45 GHz 3.4 mW/g 3 h/day from the thirty-fifth day of gestation + 9.5 months after birth microwaves, CW continuous wave, 2.45 GHz
Albert EN et al. 1981 animal, rat/Sprague-Dawley, whole body density of Purkinje cells in developing rat brains 100 MHz 2–2.77 mW/g 21 h/day for 5 days microwaves, CW continuous wave, 2.45 GHz
Albert EN et al. 1988 - - - - - microwaves, CW continuous wave, 2.45 GHz
An K et al. 2015 - - 900 MHz - - mobile phone, mobile communications, co-exposure
Aslan A et al. 2017 animal, rat/Sprague Dawley, whole body cerebellar morphology 900 MHz 0.01 W/kg 1 hour/day for 25 consecutive days mobile communications, mobile phone
Azimzadeh M et al. 2020 animal, rat/Sprague Dawley - 900 MHz - - mobile communications, mobile phone base station
Bas O et al. 2009 animal, rat/Wistar albino, whole body neuronal development of hippocampus (number and histopathological changes of pyramidal cells in the cornu ammonis) 900 MHz 2 W/kg continuous during gestation (19 days) mobile phone, mobile communications, RF field