Study overviews

Experimental studies on the effects of young animals include studies with young animals prenatally or postnatally (before or after hatching) exposed to electromagnetic fields.

Young animals in this spirit means animals of the whole animal kingdom (but in this context mainly mammals and birds), exposed and investigated before their adulthood.

Studies where young animals are exposed but only investigated during their adulthood are not considered.

The graphics also include some experimental studies with children.

Experimental studies on the effects of low and radio frequency on young animals

649 studies in total
  1. 274 studies
  2. 200 studies
  3. 80 studies
  4. 36 studies
  5. 35 studies
  6. 16 studies
  7. 8 studies

Central nervous system

80 studies in total
  1. 59 studies
  2. 20 studies
  3. 2 studies
Authors Year Exposed system Endpoints Frequency range SAR Exposure duration Parameters
Keleş Aİ et al. 2019 - - 900 MHz - - mobile communications, mobile phone, RF field, CW continuous wave
Azimzadeh M et al. 2020 animal, rat/Sprague Dawley - 900 MHz - - mobile communications, mobile phone base station
Akakin D et al. 2020 animal, rat/Wistar (<i>in utero</i> and young animals) - 1,800 MHz - - mobile communications, mobile phone
Aslan A et al. 2017 animal, rat/Sprague Dawley, whole body cerebellar morphology 900 MHz 0.01 W/kg 1 hour/day for 25 consecutive days mobile communications, mobile phone
Guler G et al. 2016 animal, rabbit/New Zealand White, whole body - 1,800 MHz 18 mW/kg - GSM, mobile communications
Sahin A et al. 2015 invertebrate, rat/Sprague Dawley, whole body - 900 MHz 0.024 W/kg - mobile phone, mobile communications
Ait-Aissa S et al. 2010 animal, rat/Wistar, whole body gliosis and apoptosis in the brains of young rats 2.45 GHz 0.08–9 W/kg continuous for 2 h/day, 5 days/week for 2 weeks (day 6 to day 21 of gestation) or 7 weeks (day 6 to day 21 of gestation + 5 weeks after birth) RF field, W-LAN/WiFi, 2.45 GHz
Paulraj R et al. 2006 animal, rat/Wistar, whole body morphological changes and protein kinase C enzyme activity in the developing rat brain 2.45 GHz 0.11 W/kg continuous for 2 h/day on 35 days microwave pulses, 2.45 GHz
Watilliaux A et al. 2011 animal, rat/Wistar, partial body: head (mainly) stress reaction and glial activation in the immature brain 1,800 MHz 0.13–2.5 W/kg continuous for 2 h on postnatal day 5, 15 or 35 GSM, mobile communications
Kesari KK et al. 2014 animal, rat/ Wistar, whole body DNA damage, protein expression, apoptosis and oxidative stress in brain 2,115 MHz 0.26–0.9 W/kg continuous for 2 hours/day for 60 days mobile phone, mobile communications