Study overviews

Experimental studies on the effects of young animals include studies with young animals prenatally or postnatally (before or after hatching) exposed to electromagnetic fields.

Young animals in this spirit means animals of the whole animal kingdom (but in this context mainly mammals and birds), exposed and investigated before their adulthood.

Studies where young animals are exposed but only investigated during their adulthood are not considered.

The graphics also include some experimental studies with children.

Experimental studies on the effects of low and radio frequency on young animals

649 studies in total
  1. 274 studies
  2. 200 studies
  3. 80 studies
  4. 36 studies
  5. 35 studies
  6. 16 studies
  7. 8 studies

Central nervous system

80 studies in total
  1. 59 studies
  2. 20 studies
  3. 2 studies
Authors Year Exposed system Endpoints Frequency range SAR Exposure duration Parameters
Albert EN et al. 1988 - - - - - microwaves, CW continuous wave, 2.45 GHz
Drecun M et al. 1990 animal, rat/Wistar, partial body: head EEG 2.45 GHz - continuous for two weeks; started on the sixth day after birth microwaves, PW pulsed wave, 2.45 GHz
Kramarenko AV et al. 2003 human, partial body: ear EEG 100 MHz - - GSM, mobile communications
Güler G et al. 2010 animal, rabbit/New Zealand White, whole body lipid peroxidation and DNA damage in the brain 1,800 MHz - continuous for 15 min/day on 7 days - from day 15 to day 22 of gestation mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications
Orendacova J et al. 2011 animal, rat/Wistar albino, whole body postnatal neurogenesis 2.45 GHz - continuous for 2 h on postnatal day 7 or day 28 microwaves, PW pulsed wave, 2.45 GHz
Yip YP et al. 1995 animal, chicken/White Leghorn, whole body: <i>in ovo</i> - 15 Hz - continuous for 6 hr RF field, magnetic field, static magnetic field, MRI
Motawi TK et al. 2014 animal, rat/Wistar albino - 900 MHz - - mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications
Masuda H et al. 2015 - - 1,457 MHz - - digital mobile phone, mobile communications, microwaves
Odaci E et al. 2016 - - - - - mobile phone, mobile communications, RF field
Ikinci A et al. 2016 - - 900 MHz - - mobile phone, mobile communications
Petitdant N et al. 2016 - - 900 MHz - - mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications, RF field, PW pulsed wave, co-exposure
Kerimoglu G et al. 2016 - - 900 MHz - - mobile phone, mobile communications, RF field
Xu F et al. 2016 - - 1,800 MHz - - mobile phone, mobile communications
Sharma A et al. 2016 - - 10 GHz - - microwaves
An K et al. 2015 - - 900 MHz - - mobile phone, mobile communications, co-exposure
Othman H et al. 2017 animal, rat/Wistar albino (embryo), whole body mental development and oxidative stress in brain of rat pups 2.45 GHz - 2 hours/day during gestation W-LAN/WiFi, RF field, 2.45 GHz
Sharma A et al. 2017 - - 10 GHz - - microwaves
Lameth J et al. 2017 - - 1,800 MHz - - mobile communications, mobile phone, GSM, PW pulsed wave
Zhang JP et al. 2017 - - 1.8 GHz - - mobile phone, mobile communications, RF field
Ahmed NA et al. 2018 - - 1,800 MHz - - mobile communications, mobile phone, PW pulsed wave
Keleş Aİ et al. 2019 - - 900 MHz - - mobile communications, mobile phone, RF field, CW continuous wave
Azimzadeh M et al. 2020 animal, rat/Sprague Dawley - 900 MHz - - mobile communications, mobile phone base station
Akakin D et al. 2020 animal, rat/Wistar (<i>in utero</i> and young animals) - 1,800 MHz - - mobile communications, mobile phone
Aslan A et al. 2017 animal, rat/Sprague Dawley, whole body cerebellar morphology 900 MHz 0.01 W/kg 1 hour/day for 25 consecutive days mobile communications, mobile phone
Guler G et al. 2016 animal, rabbit/New Zealand White, whole body - 1,800 MHz 18 mW/kg - GSM, mobile communications