Study overviews

Experimental studies on the effects of young animals include studies with young animals prenatally or postnatally (before or after hatching) exposed to electromagnetic fields.

Young animals in this spirit means animals of the whole animal kingdom (but in this context mainly mammals and birds), exposed and investigated before their adulthood.

Studies where young animals are exposed but only investigated during their adulthood are not considered.

The graphics also include some experimental studies with children.

Experimental studies on the effects of low and radio frequency on young animals

648 studies in total
  1. 274 studies
  2. 200 studies
  3. 79 studies
  4. 36 studies
  5. 35 studies
  6. 16 studies
  7. 8 studies

Fertility

35 studies in total
  1. 18 studies
  2. 16 studies
  3. 2 studies
  4. one study
Authors Year Exposed system Endpoints Frequency range SAR Exposure duration Parameters
Almášiová V et al. 2021 - - - - - microwaves, 2.45 GHz, PW pulsed wave, microwave pulses
Calis P et al. 2019 animal, rat/Wistar albino - - - - mobile communications, mobile phone, RF field, co-exposure
Hanci H et al. 2018 - - 900 MHz - - mobile communications, RF field
Shahin S et al. 2018 - - 1,800 MHz - - mobile communications, mobile phone, GSM
Okatan DÖ et al. 2018 - - 900 MHz - - mobile communications, RF field, CW continuous wave
Turedi S et al. 2016 - - 900 MHz - - mobile phone, mobile communications
Sehitoglu I et al. 2015 - - 900 MHz - - mobile phone, mobile communications
Mugunthan N et al. 2015 animal, mouse/albino, whole body - 900–2,200 MHz - - mobile phone, mobile communications
Zaun G et al. 2014 animal, mouse/C57BL/6J - - - - static magnetic field, MRI
Poulletier de Gannes F et al. 2013 animal, rat/Wistar-Han, whole body malformation, histological examination of male reproductive system and of ovaries; number and distribution of resorption sites and fetuses 2.45 GHz 0.08–4 W/kg continuous for 1 h/day, 6 days/week for up to 36 days: 2 weeks (female) or 3 weeks (male) pre-mating + 3 weeks (all animals) post-mating microwaves, PW pulsed wave, W-LAN/WiFi, 2.45 GHz, wireless transmitter
Atasoy HI et al. 2013 animal, rat/Wistar albino, whole body effects on rat testes (oxidative stress, DNA damage) 2.437 GHz 0.091 W/kg continuous for 24 h/day for 20 weeks W-LAN/WiFi
Liu W et al. 2012 - - 935 MHz - - mobile communications, mobile phone, RF field
Ozlem Nisbet H et al. 2012 animal, rat/Wistar albino, whole body testicular function 900 MHz 0.011–3 mW/kg continuous for 2 h/day for 90 days GSM, mobile communications
Imai N et al. 2011 animal, rat/Sprague-Dawley, whole body testicular function 1.95 GHz 0.08–0.4 W/kg continuous for 5 h/day, 7 days/week during 5 weeks mobile phone, W-CDMA, mobile communications, RF field, CW continuous wave
Sommer AM et al. 2009 animal, mouse/C57BL, whole body developmental parameters, reproductive ability in parental animals 2 GHz 0.08–1.3 W/kg continuous for 570 days with a 30 min break each night UMTS, mobile communications
Carnes KI et al. 1996 animal, mouse/ICR:HD, whole body fetal growth, testicular development 1 MHz 1.5 mW/kg continuous for 8 h on day 9 and/or day 12 of gestation RF field, magnetic field, static magnetic field, MRI
Brown-Woodman PD et al. 1989 - - 27.12 MHz - intermittent; 1h/day, 5days/week, for 5 weeks RF field, microw. oven/heating device, therapeutic/medical device
Gildersleeve RP et al. 1987 - - 2.45 GHz 4.03 nW/g during first 12 days of embryogenesis ( egggs rotated every 2h) microwaves, CW continuous wave, 2.45 GHz