Study overviews

Mobile phone related articles are

Experimental studies on mobile communications

1360 studies in total
  1. 548 studies
  2. 426 studies
  3. 419 studies
  4. 182 studies
  5. 153 studies
  6. 88 studies

DNA

426 studies in total
  1. 219 studies
  2. 160 studies
  3. 85 studies
  4. 37 studies

Gene/protein expression (in general) 85 studies in total

Authors Year Exposed system Endpoints Frequency range SAR Exposure duration Parameters
Nylund R et al. 2004 intact cell/cell culture, EA.hy926 cells protein expression 900 MHz 2.4 W/kg continuous for 1 h GSM, mobile communications, microwaves
Nylund R et al. 2006 intact cell/cell culture, EA.hy926 cells and EA.hy926v1 cells gene and protein expression 900 MHz 2.8 W/kg continuous for 1 h digital mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications
Nylund R et al. 2009 intact cell/cell culture, EA.hy926 cells protein expression 1,800 MHz 2 W/kg continuous for 1 h mobile communications, digital mobile phone, GSM
Nylund R et al. 2010 intact cell/cell culture protein expression 1,800 MHz 2 W/kg continuous for 1 h digital mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications
Pacini S et al. 2002 intact cell/cell culture, human skin fibroblasts gene expression, cell morphology 902.4 MHz 0.6 W/kg continuous for 1 h GSM, mobile communications
Paparini A et al. 2008 animal, mouse/BALB/c/J, whole body gene expression 1,805.2 MHz 0.2–6.05 W/kg continuous for 1 h digital mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications, microwaves
Park J et al. 2018 - - 837–1,950 MHz - - mobile phone, CDMA, W-CDMA, mobile communications, RF field
Pyrpasopoulou A et al. 2004 animal, rat/Wistar, whole body expression and localization of bone morphogenetic proteins and their receptors 9.4 GHz 500 nW/g continuous during days 1-3 postcoitum GSM, mobile communications, microwaves
Qin F et al. 2019 - - 1,800 MHz - - mobile communications, co-exposure, also other exposures without EMF
Qutob SS et al. 2006 intact cell/cell culture, U87MG (human glioblastoma cells) gene expression 1.9 GHz 0.1–10 W/kg continuous for 4 h digital mobile phone, mobile communications
Remondini D et al. 2006 intact cell/cell culture, HL-60 (human acute myeloid leukaemia cells), EA.hy926 cells (human endothelial cells), NB69 cells (human neuroblastoma cells), CHME5 cells (human microglial cells), U937 cells (monocytic lymphoblastoma cells), and T lymphocytes gene expression 900 MHz 1–2.5 W/kg intermittent, 5 min on/10 min off, for 24 h digital mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications, microwaves
Roux D et al. 2011 intact cell/cell culture, normal human epidermal keratinocytes gene expression 900 MHz 2.6–73 mW/kg continuous for 10 min mobile phone, mobile communications, CW continuous wave
Sakurai T et al. 2011 intact cell/cell culture, human astroglial cells SVGp12 gene expression 2.45 GHz 1–10 W/kg continuous for 1, 4 or 24 h mobile phone, mobile communications, microwaves, CW continuous wave, 2.45 GHz
Sekijima M et al. 2010 intact cell/cell culture, A172 (human glioblastoma cells), H4 (neuroglioma cells) and IMR90 fibroblasts (from fetal lungs) gene expression, cell proliferation 2.1425 GHz 80–800 mW/kg continuous for 24 hr to 96 hr mobile phone base station, W-CDMA, mobile communications, RF field, CW continuous wave
Sepehrimanesh M et al. 2014 animal, rat/Sprague-Dawley, whole body protein expression in testes 900 MHz 0.19–1.22 W/g repeated daily exposure for 1 h on 30 consecutive days mobile phone, mobile communications
Sepehrimanesh M et al. 2017 - - 900 MHz - - mobile communications, mobile phone, RF field
Seymen CM et al. 2019 - - 2,100 Hz - - mobile communications, mobile phone, GSM
Shivashankara AR et al. 2015 human - - - - mobile phone, mobile communications
Siqueira EC et al. 2016 human cytokine expression in parotid gland saliva - - up to 200 minutes per month for up to 10 years mobile phone, mobile communications
Stefi AL et al. 2019 - - - - - mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications
Tohidi FZ et al. 2021 animal, mouse/BALB/c - 900–1,800 MHz - - mobile communications, GSM, CDMA, mobile phone
Valbonesi P et al. 2014 intact cell/cell culture, PC-12 cells (pheochromocytoma cell line from rat adrenal gland) gene expression and protein expression of Hsp70 and mitogen-activated protein kinase 1,800 MHz 2 W/kg intermittent, 5 min on/10 min off, for 4, 16, and 24 h mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications
Valbonesi P et al. 2016 intact cell/cell culture, PC-12 cells/rat - 1.8 GHz 2 W/kg - mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications
Whitehead TD et al. 2005 intact cell/cell culture, C3H 10T1/2 cells (derived from mouse embryo fibroblasts) <i>c-Fos</i> mRNA expression 835.62 MHz 5.2–10 W/kg continuous for 4 days CDMA, FDMA, TDMA, mobile communications
Whitehead TD et al. 2006 intact cell/cell culture, C3H 10T1/2 cells (derived from mouse embryo fibroblasts) gene expression 835.62 MHz 5 W/kg continuous for 24 h CDMA, FDMA, mobile communications
Whitehead TD et al. 2006 intact cell/cell culture, C3H 10T1/2 cells (derived from mouse embryo fibroblasts) gene expression 835.62 MHz 5 W/kg continuous for 24 h digital mobile phone, CDMA, FDMA, mobile communications
Woelders H et al. 2017 animal, chicken/Leghorn (eggs), whole body embryonic development 1.8 GHz 0.38–0.45 mW/kg 22 days mobile communications, GSM, UMTS, TDMA, FDMA, RF field, DECT, W-LAN/WiFi
Yan JG et al. 2008 animal, rat/Sprague-Dawley, whole body mRNA synthesis of several injury-associated proteins 1.9 GHz 0.9–1.8 W/kg repeated daily exposure, 2 x 3 h/day, for 18 weeks analog mobile phone, digital mobile phone, PCS, CDMA, mobile communications, microwaves
Yan JG et al. 2009 animal, rat/Sprague-Dawley, whole body mRNA synthesis (gene expression) of several injury-associated proteins 800 MHz 0.9–1.8 W/kg 2 times 3 hr / day (with 30 min rest period between exposures), on 7 days/week for 18 weeks mobile communications, mobile phone, analog mobile phone, digital mobile phone, CDMA
Zeng Q et al. 2006 intact cell/cell culture, MCF-7 (human breast cancer cell line) protein and gene expression 1,800 MHz 2–3.5 W/kg intermittent, 5 min on/10 min off, for 24 h digital mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications
Zhang Y et al. 2013 intact cell/cell culture, human lens epithelial cells (HLEC) - 1.8 GHz 2–4 W/kg - GSM, mobile communications, RF field
Zhao R et al. 2007 intact cell/cell culture gene expression 1,800 MHz 2 W/kg intermittent, 5 min on/10 min off, for 24 h GSM, mobile communications
Zhao TY et al. 2007 intact cell/cell culture, murine primary neurons and astrocytes cultures gene expression of apoptosis-associated genes 1,900 MHz - continuous for 2 h digital mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications, microwaves
Zhijian C et al. 2013 intact cell/cell culture, HMy2.CIR (human B-cell lymphoblastoid cells) protein expression 1.8 GHz 2 W/kg intermittent (5 min fields on/10 min fields off) for 24 hours mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications
de Pomerai DI et al. 2016 - - 1–1.8 GHz - - mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications, RF field, CW continuous wave