Study overviews

Epidemiological studies on power frequency fields (50/60 Hz)

511 studies in total
  1. 98 studies
  2. 82 studies
  3. 79 studies
  4. 78 studies
  5. 64 studies
  6. 61 studies
  7. 60 studies
  8. 60 studies
  9. 59 studies
  10. 30 studies

Other types of childhood cancer 60 studies in total

Authors Year Study type Study group Observation period Study location Endpoints Parameters
Miller MA et al. 1995 meta-analysis men, women, children, 0–79 years - USA, Sweden, UK, leukemia and lymphoma, all cancer, childhood leukemia, all childhood cancer magnetic field, 50/60 Hz, power transmission line, residential
Meinert R et al. 1996 meta-analysis children, 0–19 years - USA, UK, Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Greece, Mexico childhood leukemia, childhood lymphoma, childhood brain/CNS tumor, other childhood cancer, all childhood cancer magnetic field, 50/60 Hz, power transmission line, residential
UK Childhood Cancer Study Investigators 1999 case-control study children, 0–14 years 01/1991 - 12/1994 in Scotland, 4/1992 - 12/1994 in Wales and England, 1995 for leukemia and Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, 1996 for leukemia UK acute lymphoblastic leukemia, total leukemia, cancer of central nervous system, other malignant diseases magnetic field, 50/60 Hz, power transmission line, inhouse wiring, residential
UK Childhood Cancer Study Investigators 2000 case-control study children, 0–14 years 01/1991 - 12/1994 in Scotland, 4/1992 - 12/1994 in Wales and England, 1995 for leukemia and Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, 1996 for leukemia UK acute lymphoblastic leukemia, total leukemia, cancer of central nervous system, other malignant disease magnetic field, 50/60 Hz, power transmission line, residential
Wilkins 3rd JR et al. 1990 case-control study children, 0–15 years 1942 - 1967 USA neuroblastom RF field, electric field, magnetic field, 50/60 Hz, occupational
Su L et al. 2018 meta-analysis children, children in utero, 0–20 years 1942 - 2006 - childhood nervous system tumors including CNS tumor and neuroblastoma magnetic field, 50/60 Hz, occupational
Wertheimer N et al. 1979 case-control study children, 0–18 years 1950 - 1973 USA childhood leukemia, childhood lymphoma, childhood brain/CNS tumor, other childhood cancer, all childhood cancer magnetic field, 50/60 Hz, power transmission line, residential
Mezei G et al. 2008 meta-analysis children, 0–20 years 1950 - 2002 USA, Sweden, Norway, Finland, Denmark, UK, Germany, Taiwan, Japan childhood brain/CNS tumor magnetic field, 50/60 Hz, power transmission line, residential
Sorahan T et al. 1999 case-control study children in utero, 0–15 years 1953 - 1981 UK childhood leukemia, childhood brain/CNS tumor, all childhood cancer RF field, magnetic field, 50/60 Hz, occupational
Tomenius L 1986 case-control study children, 0–18 years 1958 - 1973 Sweden all childhood cancer magnetic field, 50/60 Hz, power transmission line, residential
Wilkins 3rd JR et al. 1988 case-control study men, women, children, 0–19 years 1959 - 1978 USA childhood brain/CNS tumor electric field, magnetic field, 50/60 Hz, occupational
Feychting M et al. 1993 case-control study children, 0–15 years 1960 - 1985 Sweden childhood leukemia, childhood lymphoma, central nervous system tumor, other childhood cancer magnetic field, 50/60 Hz, power transmission line, residential
Feychting M et al. 1995 pooled analysis children, 0–15 years 1960 - 1986 Sweden and Denmark leukaemia, malignant lymphoma, central nervous system tumor magnetic field, 50/60 Hz, power transmission line, residential
Kheifets L et al. 2010 pooled analysis children, 0–15 years 1960 - 2001 USA, Sweden, Norway, Finland, Denmark, UK, Germany, Japan childhood brain/CNS tumor magnetic field, 50/60 Hz, residential
Zhang Y et al. 2016 meta-analysis men, women, children 1960 - 2009 USA, Canada, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, France, Italy, Germany, UK, Japan, China, New Zealand, Brazil, Iran leukemia and lymphoma, brain tumor, breast cancer, other cancer, childhood leukemia, childhood brain/CNS tumor magnetic field, 50/60 Hz
Seomun G et al. 2021 meta-analysis children, 0–19 years 1960 - 2009 UK, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Norway, Italy, New Zealand, Canada, USA, Japan, Iran, Brazil, Czech Republic, Malaysia childhood leukemia, childhood brain/CNS tumor, other childhood cancer magnetic field, low frequency, power transmission line, 50/60 Hz
Bunch KJ et al. 2014 case-control study children, 0–14 years 1962 - 2008 UK childhood leukemia, childhood brain/CNS tumor, other solid tumors magnetic field, 50/60 Hz, power transmission line, residential
Swanson J et al. 2014 case-control study children, 0–14 years 1962 - 2008 UK childhood leukemia, childhood brain/CNS tumor, other childhood cancer electric field, 50/60 Hz, power transmission line, residential, also other exposures without EMF, co-exposure
Bunch KJ et al. 2015 case-control study children, 0–14 years 1962 - 2008 UK childhood leukemia, childhood brain/CNS tumor, other childhood cancer magnetic field, static magnetic field, 50/60 Hz, DC, underground cable, high-voltage direct current (HVDC), residential
Bunch KJ et al. 2016 case-control study children, 0–14 years 1962 - 2008 UK lymphoid leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia, childhood brain/CNS tumor, other childhood cancer magnetic field, 50/60 Hz, power transmission line, residential
Draper G et al. 2005 case-control study children, 0–14 years 1962-1995 UK childhood leukemia, childhood brain/CNS tumor, other childhood cancer magnetic field, 50/60 Hz, power transmission line, residential
Kroll ME et al. 2010 case-control study children, 0–14 years 1962-1995 UK childhood leukemia, childhood brain/CNS tumor, other childhood cancer magnetic field, 50/60 Hz, power transmission line, residential
Spitz MR et al. 1985 case-control study children, 0–14 years 1964 - 1978 USA neuroblastoma electric field, magnetic field, 50/60 Hz, electrical substation, occupational, also other exposures without EMF
Johnson CC et al. 1989 case-control study children in utero, 0–14 years 1964 - 1980 USA nervous system tumor magnetic field, 50/60 Hz, occupational
Tynes T et al. 1997 case-control study children, 0–14 years 1965 - 1989 Norway childhood leukemia, childhood lymphoma, childhood brain/CNS tumor, other childhood cancer, all childhood cancer electric field, magnetic field, 50/60 Hz, power transmission line, residential
Nasca PC et al. 1988 case-control study children, 0–14 years 1968 - 1977 USA tumor of the central nervous system magnetic field, 50/60 Hz, occupational, also other exposures without EMF
Pearce MS et al. 2007 case-control study men, women, children, 0–25 years 1968 - 2000 UK childhood leukemia, childhood brain/CNS tumor, retinoblastoma, renal tumor, hepatic tumor, malignant bone tumor, soft tissue sarcoma, germ cell neoplasm electric field, magnetic field, 50/60 Hz, occupational, also other exposures without EMF
Pedersen C et al. 2015 case-control study children, 0–14 years 1968 - 2003 Denmark childhood leukemia, childhood lymphoma, childhood brain/CNS tumor magnetic field, 50/60 Hz, power transmission line, underground cable, electrical substation, residential
Bunin GR et al. 1990 case-control study children 1970 - 1979 USA neuroblastoma RF field, electric field, magnetic field, 50/60 Hz, occupational, also other exposures without EMF
Myers A et al. 1990 case-control study children, 0–14 years 1970 - 1979 UK childhood leukemia, childhood lymphoma, childhood brain/CNS tumor, other childhood cancer magnetic field, 50/60 Hz, power transmission line, residential
Kraut A et al. 1994 - children 1970 - 1986 Canada childhood leukemia, childhood brain/CNS tumor, all childhood cancer electric field, magnetic field, 50/60 Hz, power transmission line, residential
Verkasalo PK et al. 1993 cohort study children, 0–19 years 1970 - 1989 Finland childhood leukemia, childhood lymphoma, central nervous system tumor, other childhood cancer magnetic field, 50/60 Hz, power transmission line, residential
Wilkins 3rd JR et al. 1996 case-control study men, women, children, 0–20 years 1975 - 1982 USA childhood brain/CNS tumor electric field, magnetic field, 50/60 Hz, high volt./current device/welder, occupational
Savitz DA et al. 1993 case-control study children, 0–14 years 1976 - 1983 USA leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, childhood lymphoma, childhood brain/CNS tumor, soft tissue sarcoma, and other types, all childhood cancer magnetic field, 50/60 Hz, power transmission line, residential
Wertheimer N et al. 1995 case-control study children, 0–14 years 1976 - 1983 USA all childhood cancer magnetic field, 50/60 Hz, underground cable, residential
Savitz DA et al. 1990 case-control study children, 0–14 years 1976 - 1983 USA childhood leukemia, childhood brain/CNS tumor, all childhood cancer magnetic field, 50/60 Hz, electric blanket, other domestic appliance, personal
Feychting M et al. 2000 cohort study children, 0–14 years 1976 - 1993 Sweden childhood leukemia, childhood brain/CNS tumor, all childhood cancer magnetic field, 50/60 Hz, occupational
Cordier S et al. 2001 case-control study children 1976 - 1994 Australia, Israel, France, Italy, Spain, USA astroglial tumor, primitive neuroectodermal tumor, other glial tumors magnetic field, 50/60 Hz, occupational, also other exposures without EMF
Kuijten RR et al. 1992 case-control study children, 0–14 years 1980 - 1986 USA astrocytoma electric field, magnetic field, 50/60 Hz, occupational, also other exposures without EMF
Li P et al. 2009 case-control study children in utero, 0–14 years 1982 - 2002 Canada astroglial tumor, primitive neuroectodermal tumor, ependymoma, other gliomas and other intracranial neoplasms magnetic field, 50/60 Hz, occupational
Preston-Martin S et al. 1996 case-control study men, women, children, children in utero, 0–19 years 1984 - 1991 USA astrocytoma, glioma, primitive neuroectodermal tumor, other brain tumor types magnetic field, 50/60 Hz, electric blanket, other domestic appliance, personal
McKean-Cowdin R et al. 1998 case-control study men, women, children, 0–18 years 1984 - 1991 USA astroglial tumor, primitive neuroectodermal tumors electric field, low frequency, electrical substation, 50/60 Hz, occupational, also other exposures without EMF
McCredie M et al. 1994 case-control study children, children in utero, 0–14 years 1985 - 1989 Australia childhood brain/CNS tumor magnetic field, 50/60 Hz, electric blanket, other domestic appliance, personal, also other exposures without EMF
Smulevich VB et al. 1999 case-control study children, 0–14 years 1986 - 1988 Russia leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, childhood brain/CNS tumor, all childhood cancer radar, electric field, magnetic field, 50/60 Hz, PC/TV monitor, occupational, also other exposures without EMF
Malagoli C et al. 2010 case-control study children, 0–13 years 1986 - 2007 Italy acute lymphoblastic leukemia, all types of leukemia, all malignant neoplasms of the lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue magnetic field, 50/60 Hz, power transmission line, residential
Crespi CM et al. 2016 case-control study children, 0–15 years 1986 - 2008 USA childhood leukemia, childhood brain/CNS tumor magnetic field, 50/60 Hz, power transmission line, residential
Gurney JG et al. 1996 case-control study men, women, children, 0–19 years 1989 - 1994 USA childhood brain/CNS tumor magnetic field, 50/60 Hz, power transmission line, other domestic appliance, residential, personal
Dockerty JD et al. 1998 case-control study children, 0–14 years 1990 - 1993 New Zealand childhood leukemia, childhood brain/CNS tumor, other solid cancers magnetic field, 50/60 Hz, power transmission line, inhouse wiring, other domestic appliance, residential, personal
De Roos AJ et al. 2001 case-control study men, women, children, 0–18 years 1992 - 1994 USA and Canada neuroblastoma magnetic field, low frequency, 50/60 Hz, occupational
Olshan AF et al. 1999 case-control study men, women, children, 0–18 years 1992 - 1996 USA, Canada neuroblastoma electric field, magnetic field, 50/60 Hz, high volt./current device/welder, occupational