Due to a lack of financial resources, we unfortunately have to suspend the import of any new radio frequency and mobile phone-related articles as of now (November 27, 2017). We apologize for this inconvenience and will keep you informed.

Because we received a large number of inquiries, we set up a bank account to accept donations. With their aid, we hope to resume, at least partly, the import of newly published articles to the RF archive of the EMF-Portal. Any contribution is greatly appreciated. Thank you for your kind support!

DONATION ACCOUNT: Uniklinik RWTH Aachen, IBAN: DE27 3905 0000 0013 0040 15, BIC: AACSDE33, Reference: GB-FM/380454/Arbm


Basic restrictions

Basic restrictions are limits for personal protection, which specify the maximum exposure allowed in the whole body or in parts of the body with respect to the emissions from field-generating devices and systems. This type of limit includes safety factors and serves as a basis for limiting personal exposure. The basic restrictions are based on proven biological effects. Compliance with the basic restrictions can be validated only in part by direct measurements.

Depending on frequency, the following physical quantities are used to specify the basic restrictions on electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields, (ICNIRP: [1], [2], [3], [4] see also table “Basic restrictions”):Of these quantities, the magnetic flux density and the power density can be measured directly at the exposed human body.

Table: Basic restrictions for electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields in the frequency range 0 Hz -300 GHz (general public), compiled from different ICNIRP guidelines (1998 - 2010) [1]

Additionally, for pulsed exposures in the frequency range 0.3 to 10 GHz and for localized exposure of the head, in order to limit or avoid auditory effects caused by thermoelastic expansion (cf. Microwave hearing), an additional basic restriction is recommended. This is that the Specific Absorption (SA) should not exceed 10 mJ/kg for workers and 2 mJ/kg for the general public, averaged over 10 g tissue (ICNIRP, p. 509, see note 7 in table 4).

[1] Sources: ICNIRP: 1, 2, 3.
[2] Sources: ICNIRP: 4, 5.