Due to a lack of financial resources, we unfortunately have to suspend the import of any new radio frequency and mobile phone-related articles as of now (November 27, 2017). We apologize for this inconvenience and will keep you informed.

Because we received a large number of inquiries, we set up a bank account to accept donations. With their aid, we hope to resume, at least partly, the import of newly published articles to the RF archive of the EMF-Portal. Any contribution is greatly appreciated. Thank you for your kind support!

DONATION ACCOUNT: Uniklinik RWTH Aachen, IBAN: DE27 3905 0000 0013 0040 15, BIC: AACSDE33, Reference: GB-FM/380454/Arbm



Substations are buildings where the voltage is changed from extra high voltage to high voltage or medium voltage to low voltage by transformers. Converter stations are used to convert alternating current to direct current and vice versa (Converter station). Substations and converter stations are surrounded by metal fences which restrict the access to trained personal only for maintenance purposes. In publicly accessible areas the magnetic fields are below the public exposure limits.
Substation in Meerbusch-Osterath/Germany
photo: Tetris L, license: CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons
Typical measurement values are available in the database of exposure sources.