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Substation

Field description

Belongs to: Power supply
Synonyms: Electric power transformer substation, Transformer substation
Description: Substations transform electric energy to different voltage levels in the public power supply grid for both households and rail transport. Depending on the high voltage, the transformation takes place in either outdoor (110 - 400 kV) or indoor stations (6 - 110 kV). Substations normally consist of power transformers, switchboards as well as measurement and control systems. Transformer stations without power transformers are called load balancers. Due to the high automation, substations can be operated remote-controlled.

The given nominal voltage is the target voltage to which another higher voltage has been stepped down to.
Frequency ranges:
  • 50–60 Hz
Type of field: electric and magnetic

Measurements (acc. to literature)

10 kV
magnetic flux density 9.4 µT (mean, measured) Slovenia average value out of 17 measurement points in an apartment above a 10 kV transformer substation (24 h measurement) [1]
11.4 µT (maximum, measured) Slovenia maximum value out of 17 measurement points in an apartment above a 10 kV transformer substation (on the spot measurement) [1]
15.6 µT (maximum, measured) Slovenia maximum value out of 17 measurement points in an apartment above a 10 kV transformer substation (24 h measurement) [1]
110 kV
electric field strength 0.09–0.4 kV/m (measured) Finland during work near the power transformer [2]
0.6 kV/m (maximum, measured) Finland during the maintenance of a circuit breaker from below the service platform [3]
2.4–10.6 kV/m (maximum, measured) Finland during the maintenance of a circuit breaker on ground floor [4]
2.8–16.6 kV/m (maximum, measured) Finland during maintenance from the service platform [2]
3.6 kV/m (maximum, measured) Finland during the inspection of a distribution cabinet on the ground [3]
5–7.4 kV/m (maximum, measured) Finland during maintenance or inspection walk within the substation [2]
6.1 kV/m (maximum, measured) Finland while walking in the substation [3]
7.4–15.7 kV/m (maximum, measured) Finland during the maintenance of a circuit breaker on the service platform [4]
15.5 kV/m (maximum, measured) Finland during the maintenance of circuit breakers from a service platfrom [3]
current density 0.9–1.8 mA/m² (maximum, simulated) Finland maximum induced current densitiy in the neck of worker during the maintenance of a cirucuit breaker on the service platform [4]
1–1.4 mA/m² (maximum, simulated) Finland maximum induced current density in the neck of a worker during the maintenance of a circuit breaker at ground floor [4]
1.3 mA/m² (maximum, simulated) Finland maximum induced current densitiy in the neck of a worker during the maintenance of a disconnector on ground floor [4]
magnetic flux density 0.1 µT (measured) Finland at a distance of 30 m to the fence [5]
0.2 µT (measured) Finland at a distance of 20 m to the fence [5]
1.5 µT (measured) Finland while working near the capacitors on the ground [3]
2 µT (measured) Finland gas-insulated: inside the cable room at a distance of 2 m to the cables [6]
3.9 µT (measured) Finland gas-insulated: on top of the switch gear [6]
7.9 µT (measured) Finland gas-insulated: outside at a height of 170 cm near power transformers [6]
9 µT (measured) Finland gas-insulated: inside the cable room at a distance of 80 cm to a cable [6]
10.5 µT (measured) Finland while walking in the substation [3]
27 µT (measured) Finland gas-insulated: in the cable room at a distance of 40 cm to a cable [6]
28.6 µT (mean, measured) - out of 28 different tasks at various locations within the substation [3]
40.3 µT (mean, measured) Finland while working near the power transformer [3]
100 µT (measured) Finland gas-insulated: in the cable room at a distance of 20 cm to a cable [6]
178 µT (measured) Finland gas-insulated: in the cableroom, directly at a cable [6]
195.5 µT (mean, measured) Finland while working near the fence of a reactor (20 kV) [3]
204 µT (measured) Finland gas-insulated: outside at a height of 170 cm near the cables of a power transformer [6]
250 µT (measured) Finland gas-insulated: inside the cable room, between calbes [6]
420 µT (maximum, measured) Finland at the busbars [5]
559.8 µT (mean, measured) Finland while walking near the reactor cables [3]
132 kV
electric field strength 0.266 kV/m (mean, measured) Iran out of 1821 measuring points at 12 different substations [7]
magnetic flux density 0.232 µT (mean, measured) Iran out of 1821 measuring points at 12 different substations [7]
154 kV
electric field strength 41.186–140.9 µV/m (calculated) Turkey induced electric field in a human body beneath the busbars [8]
82.372 µV/m–190.75 mV/m (calculated) Turkey induced electric field in a human body in front of the circuit breakers [8]
current density 8.237–28.18 µA/m² (calculated) Turkey induced electric current in a human body beneath the busbars [8]
16.474–38.15 µA/m² (calculated) Turkey induced current densitiy in a human body in front of the circuit breakers [8]
magnetic flux density 1.9–6.5 µT (measured) Turkey beneath the busbars [8]
3.8–16.474 µT (measured) Turkey in front of the circuit breaker [8]
187 kV
magnetic flux density 4.9 µT (measured) Japan beneath the departing power lines at the fence [9]
6.85 µT (measured) Japan beneath the busbars [9]
7.34 µT (measured) Japan between lightning arrester and current transformator [9]
220 kV
electric field strength 1.2–5 kV/m (measured) Italy at a height of 1.5 m above ground at the disconnector busbars [10]
3–4.6 kV/m (min-max value, measured) Italy at a height of 1.5 m above ground at the circuit breakers [10]
magnetic flux density 4–12.5 µT (measured) Italy at a height of 1.5 m above ground at the disconnector busbars [10]
7–10.8 µT (measured) Italy at a height of 1.5 m above ground at the circuit breakers [10]
230 kV
electric field strength 1.15 V/m (maximum, measured) Iran at a distance of 50 m [11]
0.681 kV/m (mean, measured) Iran out of 607 measuring points at 3 different substations [7]
1,647 V/m (maximum, measured) Iran within the substation [11]
magnetic flux density 0.16–2.28 µT (mean, measured) Iran in the battery room [12]
0.2–0.69 µT (mean, measured) Iran in the control room [12]
0.749 µT (mean, measured) Iran out of 607 measuring points at 3 different substations [7]
1.1–9.15 µT (mean, measured) Iran in the switchgear [12]
380 kV
electric field strength 23.4 µV/m (maximum, calculated) Turkey induced electric field in a human body beneath the busbars [13]
current density 4.68 µA/m² (maximum, calculated) Turkey induced current density in a human body beneath the busbars [13]
magnetic flux density 3.3 µT (measured) Turkey at a height of 1.8 m above ground next to the transformator [13]
5.4 µT (maximum, measured) Turkey beneath the busbars [13]
400 kV
electric field strength 25 mV/m (measured) Japan induced electric field in the neck of a worker during maintenace of circuit breakers or resp. disconnectors; height: 1.52 m; distance: 0.5 m [14]
0.78 V/m (minimum, measured) Iran at a distance of 50 m [11]
0.838 kV/m (mean, measured) Iran out of 155 measuring sights at one substation [7]
1.521 kV/m (maximum, measured) Iran inside the substation [11]
11.2–11.9 kV/m (mean, measured) Finland on the service platform [15]
12.8 kV/m (measured) Japan during maintenance of circuit breakers or resp. disconnectors at a height of 1.7 m and a distance of 0.5 m [14]
15.5 kV/m (maximum, measured) Finland during the maintenance of circuit breakers at ground level [3]
15.6 kV/m (measured) Japan during maintenance of circuit breakers or resp. disconnectors at a height of 1.7 m and a distance of 0.3 m [14]
18.4–24.5 kV/m (mean, measured) Finland at a height of 1.7 m on the service platform [15]
18.5 kV/m (maximum, measured) Finland during an inspection from the maintenance platform [3]
21 kV/m (measured) Japan during maintenance of circuit breakers or resp. disconnectors at a height of 1.7 m and a distance of 0.1 m [14]
25.7 kV/m (mean, measured) Finland during the inspection of the busbars [16]
36.4 kV/m (maximum, measured) Finland at circuit breakers [15]
43.5 kV/m (maximum, measured) Finland during the inspection of busbars using a ladder [3]
43.5 kV/m (maximum, measured) Finland during the inspection of the busbars [16]
47 kV/m (maximum, measured) Finland during the inspection of the current transformer from a ladder [3]
47 kV/m (maximum, measured) Finland during the inspection of the current transformator from a ladder [16]
59 kV/m (measured) Sweden at a distance of 6 m and a height of 1.8 m [17]
65 kV/m (measured) Sweden at a distance of 1 m and a height of 1.8 m [17]
current density 1.5 mA/m² (mean, simulated) Finland induced current density in the neck of a worker during the maintenance of disconnectors [16]
2.2 mA/m² (mean, calculated) Finland during maintenance of circuit breakers from the service platform in the neck [15]
4.5 mA/m² (mean, calculated) Finland induced current density in the neck of a worker during inspection of the current transformator from a ladder [16]
5.7 mA/m² (maximum, calculated) Finland during maintenance of circuit breakers from the service platform in the neck [15]
6.4 mA/m² (maximum, simulated) Finland induced current density in the neck of a worker during inspection of the current transformator from a ladder [16]
magnetic flux density 0.751 µT (mean, measured) Iran out of 155 measuring points at one substation [7]
63 kV
electric field strength 0.78 V/m (minimum, measured) Iran at a distance of 50 m [11]
1,521 V/m (maximum, measured) Iran inside the substation [11]
66 kV
magnetic flux density 0.26 µT (maximum, measured) Japan at a distance of 7.5 m to the underground cables burid at a depth of 0.95 m [9]
2.15 µT (maximum, measured) Japan value beneath the busbars [9]
4.84 µT (maximum, measured) Japan between the circuit breakers [9]
railway substation
magnetic field strength 2–5 A/m (maximum, measured) Italy at the high voltage / middle voltage transformers [18]
2–14 A/m (maximum, measured) Italy at the rectifier transformers [18]

References

  1. Valic B et al. (2015): Typical exposure of children to EMF: exposimetry and dosimetry.
  2. Korpinen LH et al. (2010): Occupational exposure to electric and magnetic fields during work tasks at 110 kV substations in the Tampere region.
  3. Korpinen L et al. (2011): Occupational exposure to electric and magnetic fields while working at switching and transforming stations of 110 kV.
  4. Korpinen LH et al. (2012): Occupational exposure to electric fields and currents associated with 110 kv substation tasks.
  5. Okun O et al. (2013): A comparison of magnetic fields inside and outside high-voltage urban 110-kV power substations with the exposure recommendations of the Ukrainian regulatory authorities.
  6. Korpinen L et al. (2015): Examples of occupational exposure to electric and magnetic fields at 110-kV gas-insulated substations (GISs).
  7. Barsam T et al. (2012): Effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure on sleep quality in high voltage substations.
  8. Helhel S et al. (2008): Assessment of occupational exposure to magnetic fields in high-voltage substations (154/34.5 kV).
  9. Hayashi N et al. (1989): ELF electromagnetic environment in power substations.
  10. Baroncelli P et al. (1986): A health examination of railway high-voltage substation workers exposed to ELF electromagnetic fields.
  11. Nassiri P et al. (2013): Exposure assessment of extremely low frequency electric fields in Tehran, Iran, 2010.
  12. Fard MS et al. (2011): Measurement of the magnetic fields of high-voltage substations (230 kV) in Tehran (Iran) and comparison with the ACGIH threshold limit values.
  13. Ozen S (2008): Evaluation and measurement of magnetic field exposure at a typical high-voltage substation and its power lines.
  14. Tarao H et al. (2013): Numerical evaluation of currents induced in a worker by ELF non-uniform electric fields in high voltage substations and comparison with experimental results.
  15. Korpinen LH et al. (2011): Occupational exposure to electric fields and induced currents associated with 400 kV substation tasks from different service platforms.
  16. Korpinen LH et al. (2009): Evaluation of current densities and total contact currents in occupational exposure at 400 kV substations and power lines.
  17. Lovstrand KG (1976): Determination of exposure to electric fields in extra high voltage substations.
  18. Mariscotti A et al. (2004): Low-frequency magnetic field in DC railway substations