Due to a lack of financial resources, we unfortunately have to suspend the import of any new radio frequency and mobile phone-related articles as of now (November 27, 2017). We apologize for this inconvenience and will keep you informed.

Because we received a large number of inquiries, we set up a bank account to accept donations. With their aid, we hope to resume, at least partly, the import of newly published articles to the RF archive of the EMF-Portal. Any contribution is greatly appreciated. Thank you for your kind support!

DONATION ACCOUNT: Uniklinik RWTH Aachen, IBAN: DE27 3905 0000 0013 0040 15, BIC: AACSDE33, Reference: GB-FM/380454/Arbm



Oncology. General term for a malignant growth of cells (neoplasm, tumor). Cancer comprises a group of more than 100 diseases in which cells in a part of the body begin to grow out of control. Cancer cells can also invade other tissues and can spread through the lymphatic vessels or blood stream to other parts of the body leading to metastases.

The normal process of cell growth, division and programmed cell death (apoptosis) is disturbed in cancer cells. When, for example DNA, is damaged leading to a mutation that affects normal cell growth and division cancer cells divide without control. When this happens, cells do not die when they should and new cells form when the body does not need them. In the three-stage model, carcinogenesis consists of the stages tumor initiation, tumor promotion and progression in which normal cells are transformed into cancer cells. Newer models are often based on a multi-stage process in which up to 10 mutations are involved. Oncogenes, proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes often play a role in the process of carcinogenesis.