この研究は、GSM電磁放射が、雌のキイロショウジョウバエの卵巣発達に与える影響を分析した。新たに出現した処女の雌の成虫のハエを集め、羽化後の時間数（0、10、20、32、39、45、51時間）に応じて検査を行うために7群に分け、さらに0時間群を除く6群は2つのサブグループ（擬似ばく露群とばく露群：各群はn = 8）に分けた。ばく露にはGSM携帯電話を用い、ハエを入れたバイアルに電話機のアンテナを近づけた。最初のばく露（6分間連続）は羽化後3時間で実施し、10時間毎に5回繰り返した。羽化後の所定の時間で、ハエ（ばく露および擬似ばく露）を解剖し、卵巣を収集して、同じ倍率の光学顕微鏡で写真を撮った。卵形成の完了および卵巣の最初の卵の成熟に要する期間内にある卵巣のサイズをばく露群と擬似ばく露群で比較した。撮影後に、卵巣を個々の卵巣小管へと解剖し、TUNELおよびアクリジンオレンジアッセイで処理して、卵室細胞のDNA損傷を評価した。その結果、ばく露群の卵巣サイズは、対応する擬似ばく露群ものに比べ有意に小さかった；その原因は、GSMばく露が引き起こす卵室細胞のDNA損傷とそれに続く細胞死誘導による卵室の破壊である；両群の卵巣サイズの違いは、卵巣内の最初の卵が卵黄形成後期および卵黄形成後の段階（中期後期卵形成）にあるとき、すなわち羽化の39〜45時間後に最も明白であった；羽化後45時間以上経過すると、擬似ばく露群のハエの最初の成熟卵が卵巣を離れて産卵するため、卵巣のサイズの差は小さくなる、と報告している。
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To study whether the decreased reproduction in insects (Drosophila melanogaster), recorded in authors' previous studies (see "Related articles") after GSM exposure, is accompanied by decreased ovarian development during the developmental period of the first eggs in the ovaries of virgin flies (oogenesis). Oogenesis starts at the late stages of pupation and lasts until about 48 h after eclosion. Furthermore, the authors aimed to verify whether the potential effects were caused by elimination of eggs during early and mid-oogenesis due to DNA damage and cell death induction.
Newly emerged flies were divided into seven groups according to the number of hours following eclosion when they were investigated/dissected (0, 10, 20, 32, 39, 45, 51 h). Additionally, all groups (except 0 h group) were divided into two subgroups: a sham exposed and an exposed subgroup (each group n=8).
For cell death investigation ovarioles were investigated (background information on ovarioles, see Panagopoulos 2007b).
Modulation type: pulsed
ばく露時間: continuous for 6 min., every 10 h (first exposure 3 h after eclosion), max. for 5 times
|ばく露時間||continuous for 6 min., every 10 h (first exposure 3 h after eclosion), max. for 5 times|
|Repetition frequency||217 Hz|
|チャンバの詳細||antenna of the cell phone in contact with the cylindrical glass vials containing the flies|
|ばく露装置の詳細||the mobile phone was held close to the experimenter's head with its antenna facing downward, being at the same time parallel to and in contact with the glass vials; the experimenter spoke to the mobile phone's microphone during connection ("modulated emission")|
|Sham exposure||A sham exposure was conducted.|
|Additional information||no temperature increases during the GSM exposures were recorded within the vials with the insects or within the mass of the food|
The data showed that the ovarian size of the exposed insects was significantly decreased compared with the sham exposed insects. The difference in ovarian size between sham exposed and exposed virgin female flies became significant after two exposures (à 6 min) and was most evident 39-45 h after eclosion (max. decrease 29.75%) when the first eggs within the ovaries were in the stages of mid-late oogenesis.
Data on DNA fragmentation and cell death are not completely shown, but the authors declare that a large percent of DNA damage and cell death was found (average 54.42% TUNEL-positive cells in exposed insects, 6.98% in sham exposed).
In conclusion, the data showed that GSM exposure retarded ovarian development in Drosophila melanogaster and that these effects were caused probably due to a DNA damage and cell death induction in the egg chamber cells during early and mid-oogenesis.