Risk of congenital heart disease due to exposure to common electrical appliances during early pregnancy: a case-control study
Published in: Environ Sci Pollut Res 2021; 28 (4): 4739-4748
Aim of study (acc. to author)
Endpoint/type of risk estimation
Reference group 1
mobile phone use: no
mobile phone use: ≥ 1 day per week and ≥ 0.5 hour per day
Reference group 3
television use: no
television use: ≥ 1 day per week and ≥ 0.5 hour per day
Reference group 5
computer use: no
computer use: ≥ 1 day per week and ≥ 0.5 hour per day
Reference group 7
induction cooker use: no
induction cooker use: exposure during cooking
Reference group 9
microwave oven use: no
microwave oven use: exposure during operation within 1 m of it
Reference group 11
wearing of a radiation protection suit: no
wearing of a radiation protection suit: yes
Reference group 13
daily mobile phone use: no
daily mobile phone use: ≤ 3 hours
daily mobile phone use: 3 - 5 hours
daily mobile phone use: > 5 hours
Reference group 17
daily television: no
daily television: ≤ 1 hour
daily television: 1 - 2 hours
daily television: > 2 hours
Reference group 21
daily computer use: no
daily computer use: ≤ 2 hours
daily computer use: 2 - 5 hours
daily computer use: > 5 hours
Reference group 25
daily induction cooker use: no
daily induction cooker use: ≤ 10 min
daily induction cooker use: 10 - 20 min
daily induction cooker use: > 20 min
Reference group 29
daily microwave oven use: no
daily microwave oven use: ≤ 1 min
daily microwave oven use: 1 - 2 min
daily microwave oven use: > 2 min
children in utero
2014 - 2016
case:control = 1:3
Statistical analysis method:
additive interaction analyse
mother: age, education, residence, ethnicity, job, household income, passive smoking, drinking, folic acid supplement, fever or cold, medicine history, gravidity and parity history, radiation protection suits wearing, exposure to each of the other 4 types of electrical appliances
Results (acc. to author)
Study funded by
National Natural Science Foundation (NSFC), China
Shaanxi Commission of Health and Family Planning, China
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