Study overviews

Experimental studies on the effects of young animals include studies with young animals prenatally or postnatally (before or after hatching) exposed to electromagnetic fields.

Young animals in this spirit means animals of the whole animal kingdom (but in this context mainly mammals and birds), exposed and investigated before their adulthood.

Studies where young animals are exposed but only investigated during their adulthood are not considered.

The graphics also include some experimental studies with children.

Experimental studies on the effects of low and radio frequency on young animals

687 studies in total
  1. 275 studies
  2. 229 studies
  3. 83 studies
  4. 40 studies
  5. 38 studies
  6. 14 studies
  7. 8 studies

Central nervous system

83 studies in total
  1. 61 studies
  2. 21 studies
  3. 2 studies
Authors Year Exposed system Endpoints Frequency range SAR Exposure duration Parameters
Dong L et al. 2021 - - 0.5 Hz - - magnetic field, low frequency
Zheng Y et al. 2021 - - 100–200 Hz - - magnetic field, electric current application, low frequency
Zheng Y et al. 2019 tissue slices, brain, rat/Sprague-Dawley synaptic plasticity 15–100 Hz - 10 s, 20 s, 40 s, 60 s and 5 min magnetic field, 50/60 Hz, low frequency
Dong L et al. 2018 tissue slices, brain slices - 15–100 Hz - - magnetic field, 50/60 Hz, signals/pulses
Akpinar D et al. 2016 animal, rat/Wistar albino (<i>in utero</i> and young animals), whole body mismatch negativity in the EEG and oxidative brain damage 50 Hz - 1 hour/day during gestation until birth (22 days) electric field, 50/60 Hz
Win-Shwe TT et al. 2015 - - 21 kHz - - magnetic field, intermediate frequency, induction cooker
Saha S et al. 2014 animal, mouse/C57BL/6, whole body: <i>in utero</i> double-strand breaks, apoptosis 50 Hz - continuous for 2 hours magnetic field, 50/60 Hz, also other exposures without EMF
Li Q et al. 2014 - - 200 Hz - - magnetic field, low frequency, signals/pulses, also other exposures without EMF
Hemmati M et al. 2014 animal, mouse/Balb/c (embryo), whole body: <i>in utero</i> protein expression of Reelin and Dab1 in the cortex 50 Hz - 5 hours/day for 3 consecutive days magnetic field, 50/60 Hz
Balassa T et al. 2013 animal, rat/Wistar (embryo and young animal), whole body synaptic functions 50 Hz - continuous for 7 days during the second week of pregnancy magnetic field, 50/60 Hz