Study overviews

Experimental studies on the effects of young animals include studies with young animals prenatally or postnatally (before or after hatching) exposed to electromagnetic fields.

Young animals in this spirit means animals of the whole animal kingdom (but in this context mainly mammals and birds), exposed and investigated before their adulthood.

Studies where young animals are exposed but only investigated during their adulthood are not considered.

The graphics also include some experimental studies with children.

Experimental studies on the effects of low and radio frequency on young animals

649 studies in total
  1. 274 studies
  2. 200 studies
  3. 80 studies
  4. 36 studies
  5. 35 studies
  6. 16 studies
  7. 8 studies

Central nervous system

80 studies in total
  1. 59 studies
  2. 20 studies
  3. 2 studies
Authors Year Exposed system Endpoints Frequency range SAR Exposure duration Parameters
Albert EN et al. 1988 - - - - - microwaves, CW continuous wave, 2.45 GHz
Kramarenko AV et al. 2003 human, partial body: ear EEG 100 MHz - - GSM, mobile communications
Motawi TK et al. 2014 animal, rat/Wistar albino - 900 MHz - - mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications
Movvahedi MM et al. 2014 human, partial body: ear - 900 MHz 1.45 W/kg - mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications
Sahin A et al. 2015 invertebrate, rat/Sprague Dawley, whole body - 900 MHz 0.024 W/kg - mobile phone, mobile communications
Masuda H et al. 2015 - - 1,457 MHz - - digital mobile phone, mobile communications, microwaves
Odaci E et al. 2016 - - - - - mobile phone, mobile communications, RF field
Guler G et al. 2016 animal, rabbit/New Zealand White, whole body - 1,800 MHz 18 mW/kg - GSM, mobile communications
Ikinci A et al. 2016 - - 900 MHz - - mobile phone, mobile communications
Petitdant N et al. 2016 - - 900 MHz - - mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications, RF field, PW pulsed wave, co-exposure
Bhargav H et al. 2016 human - 2,100 MHz 0.4–0.54 W/kg - mobile phone, UMTS, mobile communications
Kerimoglu G et al. 2016 - - 900 MHz - - mobile phone, mobile communications, RF field
Xu F et al. 2016 - - 1,800 MHz - - mobile phone, mobile communications
Sharma A et al. 2016 - - 10 GHz - - microwaves
An K et al. 2015 - - 900 MHz - - mobile phone, mobile communications, co-exposure
Sharma A et al. 2017 - - 10 GHz - - microwaves
Lameth J et al. 2017 - - 1,800 MHz - - mobile communications, mobile phone, GSM, PW pulsed wave
Zhang JP et al. 2017 - - 1.8 GHz - - mobile phone, mobile communications, RF field
Ahmed NA et al. 2018 - - 1,800 MHz - - mobile communications, mobile phone, PW pulsed wave
Keleş Aİ et al. 2019 - - 900 MHz - - mobile communications, mobile phone, RF field, CW continuous wave
Azimzadeh M et al. 2020 animal, rat/Sprague Dawley - 900 MHz - - mobile communications, mobile phone base station
Akakin D et al. 2020 animal, rat/Wistar (<i>in utero</i> and young animals) - 1,800 MHz - - mobile communications, mobile phone
Aslan A et al. 2017 animal, rat/Sprague Dawley, whole body cerebellar morphology 900 MHz 0.01 W/kg 1 hour/day for 25 consecutive days mobile communications, mobile phone
Erdem Koc G et al. 2016 animal, rat/Wistar (<i>in utero</i>), partial body: head of mothers neuron number in hippocampus of offspring 900 MHz 2 W/kg 1 hour/day from the 1st to the 21st day of gestation mobile phone, mobile communications, RF field, co-exposure
Ragbetli MC et al. 2009 animal, mouse/Swiss albino, whole body number of pyramidal cells in the Cornu Ammonis 890–915 MHz 1.2 W/kg 12 hr/day for 19 - 20 days (gestation period) + 20 days after birth (female offspring only) mobile phone, digital mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications