Study overviews

Experimental studies on the effects of young animals include studies with young animals prenatally or postnatally (before or after hatching) exposed to electromagnetic fields.

Young animals in this spirit means animals of the whole animal kingdom (but in this context mainly mammals and birds), exposed and investigated before their adulthood.

Studies where young animals are exposed but only investigated during their adulthood are not considered.

The graphics also include some experimental studies with children.

Experimental studies on the effects of low and radio frequency on young animals

649 studies in total
  1. 274 studies
  2. 200 studies
  3. 80 studies
  4. 36 studies
  5. 35 studies
  6. 16 studies
  7. 8 studies

Central nervous system

80 studies in total
  1. 59 studies
  2. 20 studies
  3. 2 studies
Authors Year Exposed system Endpoints Frequency range SAR Exposure duration Parameters
Albert EN et al. 1988 - - - - - microwaves, CW continuous wave, 2.45 GHz
Chiang H et al. 1987 - - 3 GHz 3.5 mW/g repeated daily exposure, 5 h/day, see add. information microwaves, low level microwaves, PW pulsed wave
Khadrawy VA et al. 2009 animal, rat/albino - 900 MHz 1.165 W/kg continuous for 1 h/day for up to 4 months mobile phone, mobile communications
Yip YP et al. 1995 animal, chicken/White Leghorn, whole body: <i>in ovo</i> - 15 Hz - continuous for 6 hr RF field, magnetic field, static magnetic field, MRI
Paulraj R et al. 2012 - - 9.9 GHz 1 W/kg 2 h/day for 35 days microwaves, radar
Paulraj R et al. 2012 - - 16.5 GHz 2.01 W/kg continuous for 2 h/day at 35 days (6 days/week) low level microwaves, AM amplitude modulation
Motawi TK et al. 2014 animal, rat/Wistar albino - 900 MHz - - mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications
Movvahedi MM et al. 2014 human, partial body: ear - 900 MHz 1.45 W/kg - mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications
Sahin A et al. 2015 invertebrate, rat/Sprague Dawley, whole body - 900 MHz 0.024 W/kg - mobile phone, mobile communications
Masuda H et al. 2015 - - 1,457 MHz - - digital mobile phone, mobile communications, microwaves
Odaci E et al. 2016 - - - - - mobile phone, mobile communications, RF field
Guler G et al. 2016 animal, rabbit/New Zealand White, whole body - 1,800 MHz 18 mW/kg - GSM, mobile communications
Ikinci A et al. 2016 - - 900 MHz - - mobile phone, mobile communications
Petitdant N et al. 2016 - - 900 MHz - - mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications, RF field, PW pulsed wave, co-exposure
Bhargav H et al. 2016 human - 2,100 MHz 0.4–0.54 W/kg - mobile phone, UMTS, mobile communications
Kerimoglu G et al. 2016 - - 900 MHz - - mobile phone, mobile communications, RF field
Xu F et al. 2016 - - 1,800 MHz - - mobile phone, mobile communications
Sharma A et al. 2016 - - 10 GHz - - microwaves
An K et al. 2015 - - 900 MHz - - mobile phone, mobile communications, co-exposure
Sharma A et al. 2017 - - 10 GHz - - microwaves
Lameth J et al. 2017 - - 1,800 MHz - - mobile communications, mobile phone, GSM, PW pulsed wave
Zhang JP et al. 2017 - - 1.8 GHz - - mobile phone, mobile communications, RF field
Ahmed NA et al. 2018 - - 1,800 MHz - - mobile communications, mobile phone, PW pulsed wave
Keleş Aİ et al. 2019 - - 900 MHz - - mobile communications, mobile phone, RF field, CW continuous wave
Azimzadeh M et al. 2020 animal, rat/Sprague Dawley - 900 MHz - - mobile communications, mobile phone base station
Akakin D et al. 2020 animal, rat/Wistar (<i>in utero</i> and young animals) - 1,800 MHz - - mobile communications, mobile phone
Kesari KK et al. 2014 animal, rat/ Wistar, whole body DNA damage, protein expression, apoptosis and oxidative stress in brain 2,115 MHz 0.26–0.9 W/kg continuous for 2 hours/day for 60 days mobile phone, mobile communications
Drecun M et al. 1990 animal, rat/Wistar, partial body: head EEG 2.45 GHz - continuous for two weeks; started on the sixth day after birth microwaves, PW pulsed wave, 2.45 GHz
Kramarenko AV et al. 2003 human, partial body: ear EEG 100 MHz - - GSM, mobile communications
Noor NA et al. 2011 animal, rat/albino amino acid neurotransmitter levels in different brain areas 900 MHz 1.165 W/kg continuous for 1 h/day for up to 4 months mobile phone, mobile communications
Merritt JH et al. 1984 animal, rat/Sprague-Dawley, whole body: in utero brain development 2.45 GHz 400 µW/g repeated daily exposure, 24 h/day for 16 days microwaves, PW pulsed wave, 2.45 GHz
Kumlin T et al. 2007 animal, rat/Wistar, whole body brain development 900 MHz 0.3–3 W/kg repeated daily exposure, 2 h/day, 5 days/week, for 5 weeks digital mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications
Aslan A et al. 2017 animal, rat/Sprague Dawley, whole body cerebellar morphology 900 MHz 0.01 W/kg 1 hour/day for 25 consecutive days mobile communications, mobile phone
Albert EN et al. 1981 animal, rat/Sprague-Dawley, whole body density of Purkinje cells in developing rat brains 100 MHz 2–2.77 mW/g 21 h/day for 5 days microwaves, CW continuous wave, 2.45 GHz
Albert EN et al. 1981 animal, squirrel monkey (<i>Saimiri sciureus</i>), whole body density of Purkinje cells in the cerebellar uvula 2.45 GHz 3.4 mW/g 3 h/day from the thirty-fifth day of gestation + 9.5 months after birth microwaves, CW continuous wave, 2.45 GHz
Ushiyama A et al. 2007 animal, rat/Sprague-Dawley effects on blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier permeability 1.5 GHz 0.5–10.4 W/kg continuous for 30 min PDC, TDMA, mobile communications
Haghani M et al. 2013 animal, rat/Wistar, whole body electrical activity of Purkinje cells, cerebellum-related behaviour 900 MHz 0.5–0.9 W/kg 6 h/day during whole gestation mobile phone, mobile communications, PW pulsed wave
Razavinasab M et al. 2016 animal, rat/Wistar, whole body electrophysiological changes of pyramidal cells, learning and memory 900 MHz 0.3–0.9 W/kg 6 h/day during gestation mobile phone, mobile communications
Leung S et al. 2011 human, partial body: left/right hemisphere event-related potentials and performance during oddball paradigma and n-back task 894.6 MHz 0.7–1.7 W/kg continuous for 55 min GSM, W-CDMA, mobile communications
Ait-Aissa S et al. 2010 animal, rat/Wistar, whole body gliosis and apoptosis in the brains of young rats 2.45 GHz 0.08–9 W/kg continuous for 2 h/day, 5 days/week for 2 weeks (day 6 to day 21 of gestation) or 7 weeks (day 6 to day 21 of gestation + 5 weeks after birth) RF field, W-LAN/WiFi, 2.45 GHz
Inaloz SS et al. 1997 animal, rat/Wistar, whole body histological changes of the brain of the dams and their offspring 2.45 GHz 2.3 mW/g NIR15: 15 min/day, NIR30: 30 min/day from gestation to day of birth (21st or 22nd day after gest.) microwaves, microw. oven/heating device
Odaci E et al. 2008 animal, rat/Wistar albino, partial body: maternal head histopathology of the hippocampus, number of granule cells in the dentate gyrus 900 MHz 2 W/kg 60 min/day, from the first to the last day of gestation mobile communications
Jing J et al. 2012 animal, rat/Wistar, whole body: antenna close to the ear level of neurotransmitters and oxidative stress in the brain - 0.9 W/kg 3 times per day (3 x 10, 30 or 60 min) for 20 days during gestation mobile phone, mobile communications, microwaves
Güler G et al. 2010 animal, rabbit/New Zealand White, whole body lipid peroxidation and DNA damage in the brain 1,800 MHz - continuous for 15 min/day on 7 days - from day 15 to day 22 of gestation mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications
Othman H et al. 2017 animal, rat/Wistar albino (embryo), whole body mental development and oxidative stress in brain of rat pups 2.45 GHz - 2 hours/day during gestation W-LAN/WiFi, RF field, 2.45 GHz
Paulraj R et al. 2006 animal, rat/Wistar, whole body morphological changes and protein kinase C enzyme activity in the developing rat brain 2.45 GHz 0.11 W/kg continuous for 2 h/day on 35 days microwave pulses, 2.45 GHz
Narayanan SN et al. 2015 animal, rat/Wistar, whole body neural structure of the hippocampus, learning and spatial memory 900 MHz 1.15 W/kg continuous for 1 h/day for 28 days mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications, RF field
Erdem Koc G et al. 2016 animal, rat/Wistar (<i>in utero</i>), partial body: head of mothers neuron number in hippocampus of offspring 900 MHz 2 W/kg 1 hour/day from the 1st to the 21st day of gestation mobile phone, mobile communications, RF field, co-exposure
Bas O et al. 2009 animal, rat/Wistar albino, whole body neuronal development of hippocampus (number and histopathological changes of pyramidal cells in the cornu ammonis) 900 MHz 2 W/kg continuous during gestation (19 days) mobile phone, mobile communications, RF field
Ragbetli MC et al. 2010 animal, mouse/Swiss albino, whole body number of Purkinje cells and granule cells in the developing cerebellum 890–915 MHz 0.95 W/kg continuous for 12 hr/day - 11 hr + 45 min. in stand-by mode, 15 min. in talking mode - for 19 - 20 days druing gestation digital mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications, PW pulsed wave