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Washing machine

Belongs to:
Kitchenware and household appliances
Description:

A washing machine is an electrical household device for cleaning textiles. In general, there are three connections necessary: one for current, another for fresh water and the third for waste water. The alternating electric and magnetic fields at the fundamental frequency of 50 Hz resp. 60 Hz are mainly caused by the motor in charge of the rotation of the washing drum. In contrast to hybrid machines which use natural gas to heat the water, pure electric machines emit additional fields.

Frequency ranges:
  • 50–60 Hz
  • 10–150 kHz
Type of field:
electric and magnetic

Measurements (acc. to literature)

Measurand Value Feature Remarks
magnetic flux density 7.8 nT (measured) - at a distance of 10 cm (frequency range: 150 kHz - 30 MHz) [1]
magnetic flux density 0.01–0.15 µT (measured) - at a distance of 1 m [2]
magnetic flux density 0.013103 µT (mean, measured) - spatially averaged value at distances from 30 cm - 3.05 m [3]
magnetic flux density 0.03–0.48 µT (minimum, measured) - out of 1406 sample points; measurement bandwidth: 40 - 800 Hz [4]
magnetic flux density 0.07 µT (mean, measured) - of 1406 sample points; measurement bandwidth: 40 - 800 Hz [4]
magnetic flux density 0.08–50 µT (measured) - at a distance of 3 cm [5]
magnetic flux density 0.09 µT (mean, measured) - average of 3 devices at a distance of 50 cm; measurement bandwidth: 0 - 3000 Hz [6]
magnetic flux density 0.1 µT (measured) - at a distance of 60.96 cm [7]
magnetic flux density 0.1 µT (maximum, measured) - at a distance of 80 cm [8]
magnetic flux density 0.1–3 µT (measured) - at a distance of 30.48 cm [7]
magnetic flux density 0.15–3 µT (measured) - at a distance of 30 cm
magnetic flux density 0.2 µT (maximum, measured) - at a distance of 1 m [3]
magnetic flux density 0.25 µT (mean, measured) - at a distance of 20 cm; measurement bandwidth: 0 - 3000 Hz [6]
magnetic flux density 0.27 µT (mean, measured) - average value of 34 devices at a distance of 1 m; measurement bandwidth: 40 - 800 Hz [9]
magnetic flux density 0.31 µT (mean, measured) - average of 3 devices at a distance of 10 cm; measurement bandwidth: 0 - 3000 Hz [6]
magnetic flux density 0.4–10 µT (measured) - at a distance of 15.24 cm [7]
magnetic flux density 0.45 µT (maximum, measured) - at a distance of 40 cm [8]
magnetic flux density 0.6 µT (maximum, measured) - at a distance of 60.96 cm [7]
magnetic flux density 0.7 µT (mean, measured) - at a distance of 30.48 cm [7]
magnetic flux density 0.8–50 µT (measured) - at a distance of 3 cm [2]
magnetic flux density 0.96 µT (mean, measured) - average value of 34 devices at a distance of 50 cm; measurement bandwidth: 40 - 800 Hz [9]
magnetic flux density 1 µT (mean, measured) - arithmetic mean value out of 25 machines at a distance of 50 cm [10]
magnetic flux density 1.05 µT (maximum, measured) - directly in front of the device [8]
magnetic flux density 2 µT (mean, measured) - at a distance of 15.24 cm [7]
magnetic flux density 4 µT (maximum, measured) - at a distance of 50 cm [3]
magnetic flux density 7.73 µT (mean, measured) - average value of 34 devices at a distance of 5 cm; measurement bandwidth: 40 - 800 Hz [9]
magnetic flux density 25 µT (maximum, measured) - at a distance of 10 cm [3]
magnetic flux density 50 µT (maximum, measured) - at a distance of 3 cm [3]
magnetic flux density 338 µT (maximum, calculated) - at the surface of the device at 50 Hz [11]

References

  1. Kurokawa Y et al. (2004): Evaluation of residential exposure to intermediate frequency magnetic fields.
  2. No authors listed (2018): [Radiation and radiation protection]
  3. Mader DL et al. (1992): Residential exposure to 60-Hz magnetic fields from appliances.
  4. Kim YS et al. (1997): Exposure of Workers to Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields and Electric Appliances
  5. Hofmann L et al. (2012): [BMU study: Ecological effects of 380-kV-ground wires and HGÜ-ground wires. (Report of the working group Engineering / Economics) Volume 4.3]
  6. Ainsbury EA et al. (2005): An investigation into the vector ellipticity of extremely low frequency magnetic fields from appliances in UK homes.
  7. EPA (1992): EMF in your Environment- Magnetic Field Measurements of Everyday Electrical Devices.
  8. Farag AS et al. (1998): Electromagnetic fields in the home.
  9. Preece AW et al. (1997): Magnetic fields from domestic appliances in the UK.
  10. Preece AW et al. (1999): Assessment of Human Exposure to Magnetic Fields Produced by Domestic Appliances
  11. Leitgeb N et al. (2008): Magnetic emission ranking of electrical appliances. A comprehensive market survey.