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380 kV to 440 kV power transmission line

Belongs to:
Overhead power transmission line
Description:

380 kV - 440 kV belong to the extremely high voltage level and are operated with three-phase alternating current.

380 kV transmission lines are primarily used in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The specification of 380 kV describes the regular nominal voltage, i.e. the value during normal operation. For the sake of reducing transmission losses, this type of transmission line is often operated at higher voltages up to 420 kV. Abroad, e.g. in Scandinavia or Great Britain, 400 kV is often specified as the nominal voltage.

Frequency ranges:
  • 50–60 Hz
Type of field:
electric and magnetic

Measurements (acc. to literature)

380 kV
Measurand Value Feature Remarks
electric field strength 14.3 µV/m (maximum, calculated) Turkey induced electric field in a human body beneath the power lines [1]
electric field strength 9 V/m (maximum, measured) Germany at a distance of 400 m to residences [2]
electric field strength 35 V/m (maximum, measured) Germany at a distance of 200 m to residences [2]
electric field strength 0.1–0.2 kV/m (measured) Germany at a distance of 100 m and a height of 1 m [3]
electric field strength 200 V/m (maximum, measured) Germany at a distance of 100 m and a height of 1 m [3]
electric field strength 0.314–0.324 kV/m (mean, measured) Germany at a distance of 50 m and a height of 1 m [3]
electric field strength 0.35 kV/m (maximum, measured) Germany at a distance of 200 m near residences [4]
electric field strength 0.4–1.2 kV/m (measured) Germany at a distance of 50 m and a height of 1 m above ground [3]
electric field strength 1.644–2.036 kV/m (mean, measured) Germany at a distance of 20 m and a height of 1 m [3]
electric field strength 2–3 kV/m (maximum, measured) Germany at a height of 7.8 m [4]
electric field strength 2.1–3.8 kV/m (maximum, measured) Germany 7.8 m above groud at a pylon [2]
electric field strength 2.5–8.1 kV/m (measured) Germany beneath the power lines at a height of 1 m above ground [3]
electric field strength 3.822–3.865 kV/m (mean, measured) Germany near the lines at a height 1 m [3]
electric field strength 5 kV/m (maximum, measured) Switzerland beneath the power lines [5]
electric field strength 10 kV/m (maximum, measured) Germany - [6]
current density 2.86 µA/m² (maximum, calculated) Turkey maximum induced current density in a human body beneath the power lines [1]
magnetic flux density 0.0055 µT (maximum, measured) Germany 1 m above ground at a distance of 400 m to residences [4]
magnetic flux density 0.05–0.15 µT (measured) Germany at a distance of 100 m and a height of 1 m above ground [3]
magnetic flux density 0.076–0.163 µT (mean, measured) Germany at a distance of 50 m and a height of 1 m [3]
magnetic flux density 0.1 µT (maximum, measured) Germany at a distance of 466 m [3]
magnetic flux density 0.15 µT (maximum, measured) Germany at a distance of 100 m and a height of 1 m [3]
magnetic flux density 0.2–0.8 µT (measured) Germany at a distancce of 50 m and a height of 1 m above ground [3]
magnetic flux density 0.499–1.37 µT (mean, measured) Germany at a distance of 50 m and a height of 1 m [3]
magnetic flux density 0.6 µT (maximum, measured) Germany at a distance of 50 m and a height of 1 m [3]
magnetic flux density 0.869–2.062 µT (mean, measured) Germany near the lines at a height of 1 m [3]
magnetic flux density 0.9–4.2 µT (measured) Germany beneath the power lines at a height of 1 m above ground [3]
magnetic flux density 1.1 µT (maximum, measured) Switzerland at a distance of 50 m [5]
magnetic flux density 3.3 µT (maximum, measured) Turkey value beneath the power lines [1]
magnetic flux density 5–25 µT (maximum, measured) Germany beneath the power lines [7]
magnetic flux density 8.9–13.4 µT (maximum, measured) Germany for appartments adjacent to overhead line routes at maximum load [3]
magnetic flux density 13 µT (maximum, measured) Germany 1 m above ground in direct vicinity to the power lines [2]
magnetic flux density 15 µT (maximum, measured) Germany at a distance of 10 m to the center of the power lines [6]
magnetic flux density 30 µT (maximum, measured) Germany [6]
magnetic flux density 44.97 µT (maximum, measured) Germany 0.2 m above ground [4]
magnetic flux density 46.3 µT (maximum, calculated) Germany absolute value of the occurring induction [4]
magnetic flux density 48.7–200 µT (maximum, measured) Germany at maxiumum current load at the height of 1 m [3]
magnetic flux density 52.5 µT (maximum, measured) Germany 1 m above ground [4]
400 kV
Measurand Value Feature Remarks
electric field strength 40 V/m (maximum, measured) Great Britain at a distance of 57 m [8]
electric field strength 100 V/m (maximum, measured) Great Britain at a distance of 50 m [9]
electric field strength 0.7 kV/m (measured) China at a distance of 50 m [10]
electric field strength 800 V/m (measured) Iran at a distance of 50 m and a current load of 500 A and 300 A (two-circuit system) [11]
electric field strength 1 kV/m (measured) Great Britain at a distance of 25 m to the center [12]
electric field strength 1 kV/m (maximum, measured) Great Britain at a distance of 10 m to the lines [13]
electric field strength 1 kV/m (maximum, measured) Great Britian at a distance of 12.5 m [14]
electric field strength 1.2 kV/m (maximum, measured) Great Britian at a distance of 12.5 m [14]
electric field strength 1.5 kV/m (measured) China at a distance of 30 m [10]
electric field strength 1,500 V/m (measured) Iran at a distance of 30 m and a current load of 500 A and 300 A (two-circuit system) [11]
electric field strength 2.6 kV/m (measured) China at a distance of 10 m [10]
electric field strength 3–5 kV/m (maximum, measured) Sweden at a height of 1.3 m with the lowest point of the lines at 7.8 m [15]
electric field strength 4,000 V/m (measured) Iran at a distance of 20 m and a current load of 500 A and 300 A (two-circuit system) [11]
electric field strength 5 kV/m (maximum, measured) China at a distance of 15 m [10]
electric field strength 5 kV/m (maximum, measured) Sweden beneath the power lines [16]
electric field strength 7 kV/m (maximum, measured) Great Britain at a height of 1 m with 1.5 mm rainfall per day [17]
electric field strength 7.4 kV/m (maximum, measured) Finland beneath the lines at a height of 1.7 m [18]
electric field strength 8,000 V/m (measured) Iran at a distance of 10 m and a current load of 500 A and 300 A (two-circuit system) [11]
electric field strength 8.4 kV/m (maximum, measured) Sweden maximum value at distances up to 10 m [19]
electric field strength 10 kV/m (maximum, measured) Great Britain - [20]
electric field strength 10,000 V/m (measured) Iran beneath the power lines at a current load of 500 A and 300 A (two-circuit system) [11]
electric field strength 10 kV/m (maximum, measured) Sweden at ground level beneath the power lines [9]
electric field strength 11.3 kV/m (maximum, measured) Sweden at a height of 1.8 m [15]
magnetic flux density 16.5 nT (measured) Great Britain at a distance of 250.51 m [14]
magnetic flux density 98.7 nT (measured) Great Britain at a distance of 100.01 m [14]
magnetic flux density 0.4 µT (measured) Iran at a distance of 50 m and a current load of 500 A and 300 A [11]
magnetic flux density 452 nT (measured) Great Britain at a distance of 50.01 m [14]
magnetic flux density 0.8 µT (measured) Iran at a distance of 30 m and a current load of 500 A and 300 A [11]
magnetic flux density 1 µT (measured) Iran at a distance of 20 m and a current load of 500 A and 300 A [11]
magnetic flux density 1,689 nT (measured) Great Britain at a distance of 19.99 m [14]
magnetic flux density 2 µT (measured) Iran at a distance of 10 m and a current load of 500 A and 300 A [11]
magnetic flux density 2,375 nT (measured) Great Britain at a distance of 9.97 m [14]
magnetic flux density 2,740 nT (measured) Great Britain at a distance of 0.015 m [14]
magnetic flux density 3 µT (measured) Iran beneath the power lines at a current load of 500 A and 300 A [11]
magnetic flux density 5.4–10.8 µT (measured) Japan range of values results from the measurement of two different types of power lines at 60 Hz [21]
magnetic flux density 8 µT Great Britain at a distance of 25 m to the center of the lines [12]
magnetic flux density 40 µT (maximum) Great Britain at the floor beneath the power lines [12]
420 kV
Measurand Value Feature Remarks
electric field strength 2–3.5 kV/m (maximum, measured) Germany at a height of 7.8 m above ground at a pylon [4]
440 kV
Measurand Value Feature Remarks
electric field strength 21.6 V/m (maximum, measured) USA at a distance of 100 m [22]
electric field strength 61.6 V/m (maximum, measured) USA at a distance of 50 m [22]
electric field strength 1,148 V/m (maximum, measured) USA at a distance of 20 m [22]
electric field strength 2,140 V/m (maximum, measured) USA at a distance of 10 m [22]
magnetic flux density 0.072 µT (maximum, measured) USA at a distance of 100 m [22]

References

  1. Ozen S (2008): Evaluation and measurement of magnetic field exposure at a typical high-voltage substation and its power lines.
  2. EFZN et al. (2012): [BMU study: Ecological effects of 380-kV-ground wires and HGÜ-ground wires. (Report of the working group Environment) Volume 4.2]
  3. Neitzke HP et al. (2010): [Determination and comparison of electric and magnetic field exposures emitted by underground and overhead power lines - project 3608S03011 ].
  4. Hofmann L et al. (2012): [BMU study: Ecological effects of 380-kV-ground wires and HGÜ-ground wires. (Report of the working group Engineering / Economics) Volume 4.3]
  5. Moser M et al. (2006): [Non-ionizing radiation and health protection in Switzerland: basic information].
  6. Börner F (2003): [BIA-Report 6/03: Electromagnetic Fields near Electrical and Electronic Appliances, Machines and Equipment].
  7. No authors listed (2018): [Radiation and radiation protection]
  8. Jeffers D (1998): Measurement of Radon Decay Product Concentrations under Power Lines.
  9. Swanson J et al. (1999): Possible mechanisms by which electric fields from power lines might affect airborne particles harmful to health.
  10. Duyan G et al. (2008): Modeling of electromagnetic environment of transmission lines for studying effect of ELF-EMF.
  11. Ahmadi H et al. (2010): Electromagnetic fields near transmission lines - problems and solutions.
  12. Allen SG et al. (1994): Review of Occupational Exposure to Optical Radiation and Electric and Magnetic Fields with Regard to the Proposed CEC Physical Agents Directive. NRPB·R265
  13. Swanson J et al. (2000): Comment on the papers: Increased exposure to pollutant aerosols under high voltage power lines; and Corona ions from powerlines and increased exposure to pollutant aerosols.
  14. Swanson J (1995): Magnetic fields from transmission lines: comparison of calculations and measurements.
  15. Algers B et al. (1986): The effect of exposure to 400 kV transmission lines on the fertility of cows. A retrospective cohort study
  16. Korpinen L et al. (2012): Cardiac pacemakers in electric and magnetic fields of 400-kV power lines.
  17. Fews AP et al. (1999): Increased exposure to pollutant aerosols under high voltage power lines.
  18. Korpinen LH et al. (2009): Evaluation of current densities and total contact currents in occupational exposure at 400 kV substations and power lines.
  19. Algers B et al. (1987): Effects of long-term exposure to a 400-kV, 50-Hz transmission line on estrous and fertility in cows.
  20. Jeffers D (1997): Power Frequency Transmission and Installations in the UK
  21. Miyaji Y et al. (2014): Evaluation of magnetic field generated by power facilities in accordance with IEC 62110.
  22. King RW (1998): Fields and currents in the organs of the human body when exposed to power lines and VLF transmitters.