|Exposure duration||continuous for 48 h|
|Chamber||cells were seeded in plates with 24 or 6 wells; plates were placed in a 5% CO2 incubator at 37°C|
|Setup||double-wrapped coil system consisting of an alternating power source and two solenoid coils; each solenoid coil was composed of a core cylindrical tube of epoxy resins (inner diameter 200 mm, length 350 mm) and two subcoils with 160 turns each of enamel copper wire (diameter 2.06 mm); solenoid coils were placed into two CO2 incubators; direction of the magnetic field was vertical|
|Sham exposure||A sham exposure was conducted.|
The magnetic nanoparticles reduced the cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. The magnetic field exposure also reduced the cell viability with increasing concentrations of the magnetic nanoparticles. The magnetic nanoparticles alone did not cause apoptosis in PC12 cells; however, the proportion of apoptotic cells increased significantly under magnetic field exposure and increasing doses of nanoparticles. The magnetic nanoparticles could be ingested and then cause a slight change in cell morphology.
The authors conclude that combined exposure of magnetic fields and magnetic nanoparticles resulted in remarkable cytotoxicity and increased apoptosis in PC12 cells. The results suggest that magnetic field exposure could strengthen the magnetic field of magnetic nanoparticles, which may enhance the bioeffects of extremely low frequency magnetic fields.