Study type: Epidemiological study (observational study)

Association between Exposure to Smartphones and Ocular Health in Adolescents. epidem.

Published in: Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2016; 23 (4): 269-276

Aim of study (acc. to author)

A cross-sectional study was conducted in Korea to investigate the association between smartphone use and ocular symptoms in adolescents.

Endpoint/type of risk estimation

Type of risk estimation: (odds ratio (OR))

Exposure

Assessment

Exposure groups

Group Description
Reference group 1 daily smartphone use: < 2 hours/day (short)
Group 2 daily smartphone use: > 2 hours/day (intermediate)
Group 3 daily smartphone use: > 2 hours/day and continuous use ≤.2 hours/occasion (excessive/intermittent)
Group 4 daily smartphone use: > 2 hours/day and continuous use > 2 hours/occasion (excessive/persistent)
Reference group 5 lifetime smartphone use: ≤ 3 lifetime hours (low)
Group 6 lifetime smartphone use: 4 - 8 lifetime hours (intermediate)
Group 7 lifetime smartphone use: 9 - 12 lifetime hours (high)
Group 8 lifetime smartphone use: > 12 lifetime hours (extreme)

Population

Study size

Type Value
Total 734
Evaluable 715
Statistical analysis method: ( adjustment: )

Conclusion (acc. to author)

Higher prevalence rates for ocular symptoms were observed in adolescents with greater exposure to smartphones. Longer daily smartphone use was associated with a higher likelihood of having multiple ocular symptoms (5-7 symptoms out of 7 symptoms). Excessive/intermittent use (group 3) and excessive/persistent use (group 4) compared to shorter use (group 1) were associated with multiple ocular symptoms (OR 2.18, CI 1.09-4.39; OR 2.26, CI 1.11-4.57, respectively). A higher lifetime exposure to smartphones (group 8) was associated with a higher likelihood of having multiple ocular symptoms (OR 3.05, CI 1.51-6.19).
The authors conclude that longer exposure to smartphones can have a negative impact on ocular health in adolescents.

Study funded by

Related articles