Study overviews

Experimental studies on the effects of young animals include studies with young animals prenatally or postnatally (before or after hatching) exposed to electromagnetic fields.

Young animals in this spirit means animals of the whole animal kingdom (but in this context mainly mammals and birds), exposed and investigated before their adulthood.

Studies where young animals are exposed but only investigated during their adulthood are not considered.

The graphics also include some experimental studies with children.

Experimental studies on the effects of low and radio frequency on young animals

649 studies in total
  1. 274 studies
  2. 200 studies
  3. 80 studies
  4. 36 studies
  5. 35 studies
  6. 16 studies
  7. 8 studies

Central nervous system

80 studies in total
  1. 59 studies
  2. 20 studies
  3. 2 studies
Authors Year Exposed system Endpoints Frequency range SAR Exposure duration Parameters
Loughran SP et al. 2013 human, partial body: head waking EEG, cognitive performance 900 MHz 0.35–1.4 W/kg continuous for 30 min mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications, PW pulsed wave
Paulraj R et al. 2012 - - 16.5 GHz 2.01 W/kg continuous for 2 h/day at 35 days (6 days/week) low level microwaves, AM amplitude modulation
Paulraj R et al. 2012 - - 9.9 GHz 1 W/kg 2 h/day for 35 days microwaves, radar
Jing J et al. 2012 animal, rat/Wistar, whole body: antenna close to the ear level of neurotransmitters and oxidative stress in the brain - 0.9 W/kg 3 times per day (3 x 10, 30 or 60 min) for 20 days during gestation mobile phone, mobile communications, microwaves
Noor NA et al. 2011 animal, rat/albino amino acid neurotransmitter levels in different brain areas 900 MHz 1.165 W/kg continuous for 1 h/day for up to 4 months mobile phone, mobile communications
Leung S et al. 2011 human, partial body: left/right hemisphere event-related potentials and performance during oddball paradigma and n-back task 894.6 MHz 0.7–1.7 W/kg continuous for 55 min GSM, W-CDMA, mobile communications
Watilliaux A et al. 2011 animal, rat/Wistar, partial body: head (mainly) stress reaction and glial activation in the immature brain 1,800 MHz 0.13–2.5 W/kg continuous for 2 h on postnatal day 5, 15 or 35 GSM, mobile communications
Orendacova J et al. 2011 animal, rat/Wistar albino, whole body postnatal neurogenesis 2.45 GHz - continuous for 2 h on postnatal day 7 or day 28 microwaves, PW pulsed wave, 2.45 GHz
Ait-Aissa S et al. 2010 animal, rat/Wistar, whole body gliosis and apoptosis in the brains of young rats 2.45 GHz 0.08–9 W/kg continuous for 2 h/day, 5 days/week for 2 weeks (day 6 to day 21 of gestation) or 7 weeks (day 6 to day 21 of gestation + 5 weeks after birth) RF field, W-LAN/WiFi, 2.45 GHz
Ragbetli MC et al. 2010 animal, mouse/Swiss albino, whole body number of Purkinje cells and granule cells in the developing cerebellum 890–915 MHz 0.95 W/kg continuous for 12 hr/day - 11 hr + 45 min. in stand-by mode, 15 min. in talking mode - for 19 - 20 days druing gestation digital mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications, PW pulsed wave