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Fluorescent lamp

Belongs to:
Illumination
Synonyms:
Energy-saving bulb, Energy-saving light, Fluorescent bulb, Fluorescent tube
Description:

Fluorescent lamps comprise in the following both compact fluorescent lamps (energy-saving lamps) as well as fluorescent tubes.

Generally, the term energy saving bulbs characterizes all bulbs with a better efficiency than light bulbs; however, the correct term is compact fluorescent lamp as these lamps are fluorescent lamps in a compact form similar to that of common light bulbs. The light generation for both compact fluorescent lamps as well as fluorescent tubes is caused through gas discharge (often mercury gas). Having operated the light switch, a ballast initially heats the cathodes for the ignition of the lamps. The pressure build-up, i.e. the evaporation of mercury, takes place in two steps: firstly through the cathodes and subsequently through self-heating. This process requires time which is why compact fluorescent lamps do not reach their full brightness instantaneously.

Nowadays, compact fluorescent lamps are driven with an electronic ballast which is integrated into the lamps. An electronic ballast consists of different electronic components and drives a bulb at a higher frequency than the mains frequency. Its fundamental frequency lies between 40 kHz - 60 kHz. In contrast, conventional ballasts operate at 50 Hz and only consist of a series reactor.

From technical point of view, fluorescent tubes work like compact fluorescent lamps. Their color depends on the choice of the filled-in gas: Tubes filled in with neon e.g. emit orange-red light. Colloquially, fluorescent tubes are also called neon tubes. However, the classification of a neon tube is only correct if the tube contains neon and therefore emits orange-red light.

Frequency ranges:
  • 50–60 Hz (for a conventional ballast)
  • 45–60 kHz (for an electrical ballast)
Type of field:
electric and magnetic

Measurements (acc. to literature)

compact fluorescent bulb
Measurand Value Feature Remarks
electric field strength 10.3–71.6 V/m (measured) operating frequency not specified at a distance of 30 cm; measurement range: 9 kHz - 1 MHz [1]
electric field strength 60.37 V/m (measured) operating frequency: 47.5 kHz 15 cm laterally under the reading lamp in an office environment; measurement frequency corresponds with operating frequency [1]
electric field strength 82 V/m (maximum, measured) operating frequency not specified for a round bulb [2]
electric field strength 88 V/m (maximum, measured) operating frequency not specified for a candle bulb [2]
electric field strength 96.6 V/m (maximum, measured) operating frequency: 46 kHz maximal value of 6 energy saving bulbs, distance: 15 cm, measurement frequency corresponds with operating frequency [3]
electric field strength 100 V/m (maximum, measured) operating frequency not specified for a spiral bulb [2]
electric field strength 117.3 V/m (maximum, measured) operating frequency: 50 kHz maximal value of 6 energy saving bulbs, distance: 5 cm; measurement frequency corresponds with operating frequency [3]
electric field strength 339.7 V/m (measured) operating frequency: 47.5 kHz 15 cm below the reading lamp at the office; measurement frequency corresponds with operating frequency [1]
electric field strength 397.5 V/m (measured) operating frequency: 47.5 kHz 15 cm beneath a bulb hanging from the ceiling in an office environment; measurement frequency corresponds with operating frequency [1]
current density 0.47 mA/m² (maximum, calculated) operating frequency not specified maximum horizontal component at 20 W output power [1]
current density 1.11 mA/m² (calculated) operating frequency: 47.5 kHz at a distance of 14.4 cm to a reading lamp with shade in an office environment; measurement frequency corresponds with operating frequency [1]
current density 1.58 mA/m² (calculated) operating frequency: 47.5 kHz at a distance of 14.4 cm to a reading lamp without shade in an office environment; measurement frequency corresponds with operating frequency [1]
current density 1.9 mA/m² (calculated) operating frequency: 47.35 kHz at a distance of 11.8 cm to a standing lamp without shade; measurement frequency corresponds with operating frequency [1]
current density 2.11 mA/m² (calculated) operating frequency: 47.5 kHz at a distance of 11.8 cm to a standing lamp with shade; measurement frequency corresponds with operating frequency [1]
current density 5.38 mA/m² (calculated) operating frequency: 47.5 kHz 2 cm beneath a reading lamp in an office environment; measurement frequency corresponds with operating frequency [1]
current density 8.6 mA/m² (maximum, measured) operating frequency not specified maximum vertical component at 20 W output power [1]
current density 9.84 mA/m² (maximum) operating frequency: 47.5 kHz 2 cm beneath a bulb hanging from the ceiling; measurement frequency corresponds with operating frequency [1]
magnetic field strength 15–31 mA/m (measured) operating frequency not specified at a distance of 30 cm; measurement range: 9 kHz - 1 MHz [1]
magnetic field strength 16 mA/m–0.105 A/m (measured) operating frequency not specified at a distance of 15 cm; measurement range: 9 kHz - 1 MHz [1]
magnetic flux density 2–29 nT (measured) operating frequency: 50 kHz at a distance of 30 cm; measurement frequency corresponds with operating frequency [4]
magnetic flux density 0.01–2.651 µT (measured) operating frequency: 50 kHz at a distance of 30 cm; measurement frequency: 50 Hz [4]
magnetic flux density 0.01 µT (measured) operating frequency not specified at a distance of 1 m for a 15 W bulb with electronic ballast [5]
magnetic flux density 0.025–0.03 µT (measured) operating frequency: 50 kHz at a distance of 30 cm; measurement frequency: 50 kHz [4]
magnetic flux density 0.1 µT (measured) operating frequency not specified at a distance of 30 cm for a 15 W energy saving bulb [5]
magnetic flux density 0.301 µT (measured) operating frequency not specified total flux density 15 cm beneath the bulb; measurement frequency: 50 Hz [1]
magnetic flux density 0.362 µT (measured) operating frequency not specified total flux densitiy 15 cm beneath and 15 cm to the side of the bulb; measurement frequency: 50 Hz [1]
fluorescent tube
Measurand Value Feature Remarks
electric field strength 0.89 V/m (maximum, measured) operating frequency not specified at the center of a fluorescent tube; measurement frequency not specified [1]
electric field strength 241 V/m (maximum, measured) operating frequency: 45 kHz maximum value of 5 different fluorescent tubes; distance: 10 cm; measurement frequency corresponds with operating frequency [3]
electric field strength 471 V/m (maximum, measured) operating frequency: 45 kHz maximum value of 5 different fluorescent tubes; distance: 5 cm; measurement frequency corresponds with operating frequency [3]
electric field strength 1,244.9 V/m (maximum, measured) operating frequency: 45 kHz maximum value of 5 different fluorescent tubes; distance: 0 cm; measurement frequency corresponds with operating frequency [3]
magnetic flux density 0.012692 µT (mean, measured) operating frequency not specified spatially averaged value in the range from 30 cm - 3,05 m [6]
magnetic flux density 0.0166 µT (maximum, measured) operating frequency not specified averaged maximum value of different fluorescent tubes at a distance of 50 cm; measurement range: 10 k Hz - 150 k Hz [7]
magnetic flux density 0.0181 µT (maximum, measured) operating frequency not specified averaged maximum value of different fluorescent tubes at a distance of 10 cm; measurement range: 150 kHz - 30 MHz [7]
magnetic flux density 0.02–0.25 µT (measured) operating frequency not specified at a distance of 1 m; measurement frequency not specified [8]
magnetic flux density 0.03 µT (mean, measured) operating frequency not specified average value of 3 different fluorescent tubes at a distance of 1 m; measurement range: 40 Hz - 800 Hz [9]
magnetic flux density 0.15 µT (mean, measured) operating frequency not specified average value of 3 different fluorescent tubes at a distance of 50 cm; measurement rane: 40 Hz - 800 Hz [9]
magnetic flux density 0.5–2 µT (measured) operating frequency not specified at a distance of 30 cm; measurement frequency not specified [8]
magnetic flux density 0.55–0.6 µT (measured) operating frequency not specified at a distance of 80 cm; measurement frequency not specified [10]
magnetic flux density 0.8 µT (measured) operating frequency not specified at a distance of 61 cm; measurement frequency not specified [11]
magnetic flux density 2–10 µT (measured) operating frequency not specified at a distance of 15 cm; measurement frequency not specified [11]
magnetic flux density 3–3.5 µT (measured) operating frequency not specified at a distance of 40 cm; measurement frequency not specified [10]
magnetic flux density 4.186 µT (measured) operating frequency not specified at a distance of 15 cm to the fluorescent tube; measurement frequency not specified [1]
magnetic flux density 5.87 µT (mean, measured) operating frequency not specified average value of 3 different fluorescent tubes at a distance of 5 cm; measurement range: 40 Hz - 800 Hz [9]
magnetic flux density 20 µT (measured) operating frequency not specified directly beneath the fluorescent tube; measurement frequency not specified [10]
magnetic flux density 40–400 µT (measured) operating frequency not specified at a distance of 3 cm; measurement frequency not specified [8]

References

  1. Nadakuduti J et al. (2010): Assessment of EM Exposure of Energy-Saving Bulbs & Possible Mitigation Strategies (Final Report).
  2. Bakos J et al. (2010): Spot measurements of intermediate frequency electric fields in the vicinity of compact fluorescent lamps.
  3. Van Den Bossche M et al. (2015): In situ exposure assessment of intermediate frequency fields of diverse devices.
  4. Dürrenberger G et al. (2004): [EMF of energy saving lamps: field measurements and exposure estimations with comparison to other sources in everyday life - Final report]
  5. Neitzke HP et al. (2006): [EMF manual. Electromagnetic fields: sources, risks, protection].
  6. Mader DL et al. (1992): Residential exposure to 60-Hz magnetic fields from appliances.
  7. Kurokawa Y et al. (2004): Evaluation of residential exposure to intermediate frequency magnetic fields.
  8. (2018): [Radiation and radiation protection]
  9. Preece AW et al. (1997): Magnetic fields from domestic appliances in the UK.
  10. Farag AS et al. (1998): Electromagnetic fields in the home.
  11. National Research Council (1997): Possible health effects of exposure to residential electric and magnetic fields.