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Hair dryer

Belongs to:
Hygiene & care
Synonyms:
Blowdryer
Description:

A hair dryer is an electric handheld device which is designed to dry hair after a hair wash. The device conducts air with a blower through current-carrying heating wires to warm up.

Frequency ranges:
  • 50–60 Hz
Type of field:
electric and magnetic

Measurements (acc. to literature)

Measurand Value Feature Remarks
electric field strength 40 V/m (measured) - in the vicinity of the device [1]
electric field strength 80 V/m - at a distance of 30 cm [2]
electric field strength 1.72 kV/m (maximum, measured) - at the surface of the device at 50 Hz [3]
current density 0.0081 µA/cm² (maximum, measured) - induced current density 6 cm beneath the skullcap [4]
current density 0.1–8 mA/m² (maximum, calculated) - maximal values under various exposure conditions [5]
current density 0.34 µA/cm² (maximum, measured) - induced current density at a distance of 5.3 cm to the head [4]
current density 0.8 µA/cm² (maximum, measured) - induced current density at a distance of 2.3 cm to the head [4]
magnetic field strength 0.6–4 A/m (measured) - at a distance of 3 cm (frequency: 100 Hz) [6]
magnetic field strength 1.6 A/m (maximum, measured) - maximum of the vertical field component at a distance of 10 cm [6]
magnetic field strength 4 A/m (maximum, measured) - maximum of the vertical field component at a distance of 3 cm (typical use distance) [6]
magnetic field strength 6–10.5 A/m (maximum, measured) - at a distance of 3 cm [6]
magnetic field strength 7.2 A/m (maximum, calculated) - interpolated maximum value of the vertical field component at the surface of the device [6]
magnetic flux density 0.01–0.3 µT (min-max value, measured) - at a distance of 1 m [7]
magnetic flux density 0.02 µT (mean, measured) - average value of 39 devices at a distance of 1 m; measurement bandwidth: 40 - 800 Hz [8]
magnetic flux density 0.06–4.85 µT (measured) - of 378 sample points; measurement bandwidth: 40 - 800 Hz [9]
magnetic flux density 0.08 µT (measured) - at a distance of 50 cm [10]
magnetic flux density 0.09 µT (mean, measured) - average of 5 devices at a distance of 50 cm; measurement bandwidth: 0 - 3 kHz [11]
magnetic flux density 0.1–7 µT (measured) - at a distance of 30 cm [7]
magnetic flux density 0.1–70 µT (measured) - at a distance of 15.24 cm [12]
magnetic flux density 0.1–70 µT (min-max value, measured) - distance: 15 cm [5]
magnetic flux density 0.12 µT (mean, measured) - average value of 39 devices at a distance of 50 cm; measurement bandwidth: 40 - 800 Hz [8]
magnetic flux density 0.35 µT (mean, measured) - mean exposure during use [13]
magnetic flux density 0.579 µT (measured) - at a distance of 15 cm (frequency range: 54 - 606 Hz) [14]
magnetic flux density 0.6 µT (mean, measured) - at a distance of 20 cm; measurement bandwidth: 0 - 3000 Hz [11]
magnetic flux density 0.7 µT (maximum, measured) - at a distance of 80 cm [15]
magnetic flux density 1 µT (maximum, measured) - at a distance of 15 cm [4]
magnetic flux density 1.256 µT (measured) - at a distance of 10 cm (frequency range: 54 - 606 Hz) [14]
magnetic flux density 1.28 µT (measured) - at a distance of 8 - 10 cm [16]
magnetic flux density 1.93 µT (mean, measured) - average of 6 devices at a distance of 10 cm; measurement bandwidth: 0 - 3 kHz [11]
magnetic flux density 2 µT (measured) - at a distance of 10 cm [10]
magnetic flux density 2.33 µT (mean, measured) - of 378 sample points; measurement bandwidth: 40 - 800 Hz [9]
magnetic flux density 4 µT (mean, measured) - at a distance of 30 cm [17]
magnetic flux density 4.15 µT (measured) - at a distance of 5 cm (frequency range: 54 - 606 Hz) [14]
magnetic flux density 5 µT (measured) - at a distance of 5.6 cm [18]
magnetic flux density 5 µT (maximum, measured) - at a distance of 40 cm [15]
magnetic flux density 6–22 µT (measured) - at a distance of 3 cm [14]
magnetic flux density 6–2,000 µT (measured) - at a distance of 3 cm [19]
magnetic flux density 6 µT–2 mT (measured) - at a distance of 3 cm [7]
magnetic flux density 8 µT (maximum, measured) - after switching the device on [14]
magnetic flux density 12.03 µT (mean, measured) - spatially averaged value at distances from 3 - 30 cm [20]
magnetic flux density 13 µT (maximum, measured) - at a distance of 5 cm [4]
magnetic flux density 17–0.12 µT (measured) - at distances from 5 - 50 cm [14]
magnetic flux density 17.44 µT (mean, measured) - average value of 39 devices at a distance of 5 cm; measurement bandwidth: 40 - 800 Hz [8]
magnetic flux density 20 µT (maximum, measured) - at a distance of 3 cm [10]
magnetic flux density 28 µT (maximum, measured) - for an older model [21]
magnetic flux density 30 µT (mean, measured) - at a distance of 15 cm [17]
magnetic flux density 35 µT (maximum, measured) - at a distance of 3 cm [4]
magnetic flux density 70 µT (measured) - in the vicinity of the device [1]
magnetic flux density 100–500 µT (maximum, measured) - sum of all spectral components [22]
magnetic flux density 121 µT (maximum, measured) - at the surface of the device at 50 Hz [23]
magnetic flux density 1.05 mT (maximum, measured) - at the surface of the device at 50 Hz [15]

References

  1. Ahmadi H et al. (2010): Electromagnetic fields near transmission lines - problems and solutions.
  2. (2018): [Radiation and radiation protection]
  3. Leitgeb N et al. (2008): Electric emissions from electrical appliances.
  4. Cheng J et al. (1995): Magnetic field induced currents in a human head from use of portable appliances.
  5. National Research Council (1997): Possible health effects of exposure to residential electric and magnetic fields.
  6. Tofani S et al. (1995): Spectral analysis of magnetic fields from domestic appliances and corresponding induced current densities in an anatomically based model of the human head.
  7. IEH et al. (2012): [BMU study: Ecological effects of 380-kV-ground wires and HGÜ-ground wires. (Report of the working group Engineering / Economics) Volume 4.3]
  8. Preece AW et al. (1997): Magnetic fields from domestic appliances in the UK.
  9. Kim YS et al. (1997): Exposure of Workers to Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields and Electric Appliances
  10. Kaune WT (1993): Assessing human exposure to power-frequency electric and magnetic fields.
  11. Ainsbury EA et al. (2005): An investigation into the vector ellipticity of extremely low frequency magnetic fields from appliances in UK homes.
  12. Danielyan AA et al. (1999): The static magnetic field effects on ouabain H3 binding by cancer tissue.
  13. Mezei G et al. (2001): Household appliance use and residential exposure to 60-Hz magnetic fields.
  14. Kaune WT et al. (2002): Magnetic fields produced by hand held hair dryers, stereo headsets, home sewing machines, and electric clocks.
  15. Farag AS et al. (1998): Electromagnetic fields in the home.
  16. Behrens T et al. (2004): Quantification of lifetime accumulated ELF-EMF exposure from household appliances in the context of a retrospective epidemiological case-control study.
  17. Lacy-Hulbert A et al. (1998): Biological responses to electromagnetic fields.
  18. Straume A et al. (2007): Frequency spectra from current vs. magnetic flux density measurements for mobile phones and other electrical appliances.
  19. Neitzke HP et al. (2006): [EMF manual. Electromagnetic fields: sources, risks, protection].
  20. Mader DL et al. (1992): Residential exposure to 60-Hz magnetic fields from appliances.
  21. Wilson BW et al. (1994): Magnetic-field flux density and spectral characteristics of motor-driven personal appliances.
  22. Leitgeb N et al. (2008): Magnetic emissions of electric appliances.
  23. Leitgeb N et al. (2008): Magnetic emission ranking of electrical appliances. A comprehensive market survey.