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Toaster

Belongs to:
Kitchenware and household appliances
Description:

A toaster is an electrically driven appliance for roasting bread, especially toast bread. Nowadays, modern toasters consist of heating elements and an either electrical or pure thermo-mechanical control mechanism for the automation of the toasting process. For the electrical control, an electromagnet keeps both bread and switching contacts down. An integrated circuit controls the release of the retaining magnet and thereby the termination of the toasting process. The control signal for the degree of browning is provided by a potentiometer which is adjusted by the user. In contrast to that mechanism, the thermo-mechanical control is achieved through bimetal strips. Once the toasting process has been initiated, the contacts for the heating elements are closed while a separate heating conductor heats the bimetal strip. As a result the bimetal strip reaches an intermediate state due to its deformation caused by the heating. Once the bimetal strip has cooled off, the toasting process terminates. The degree of browning is given by the choice of the degree of deformation of the bimetal strip.

Frequency ranges:
  • 50–60 Hz
Type of field:
electric and magnetic

Measurements (acc. to literature)

Measurand Value Feature Remarks
magnetic flux density 0.002754 µT (mean, calculated) - spatially averaged value at distances from 30 cm - 3.05 m [1]
magnetic flux density 0.01–0.02 µT (maximum) - at a distance of 1 m
magnetic flux density 0.02 µT (mean, measured) - average value of 29 different toasters at a distance of 100 cm; measurement bandwidth: 40 - 800 Hz [2]
magnetic flux density 0.03 µT (maximum, measured) - at a distance of 50 cm; measurement bandwidth: 40 - 800 Hz [3]
magnetic flux density 0.05 µT (maximum, measured) - at a distance of 80 cm [4]
magnetic flux density 0.08 µT (mean, measured) - average value of measurements of 13 different toasters at a distance of 50 cm; measurement bandwidth: 0 - 3000 Hz [5]
magnetic flux density 0.09 µT (mean, measured) - average value of 29 different toasters at a distance of 50 cm; measurement bandwidth: 40 - 800 Hz [2]
magnetic flux density 0.3 µT (mean, measured) - at a distance of 30 cm [6]
magnetic flux density 0.3 µT (mean, measured) - at a distance of 30.48 cm [7]
magnetic flux density 0.5–2 µT (measured) - at a distance of 15.24 cm [7]
magnetic flux density 0.7 µT (maximum, measured) - at a distance of 30.48 cm [7]
magnetic flux density 1 µT (mean, measured) - at a distance of 15.24 cm [7]
magnetic flux density 1 µT (maximum, measured) - at a distance of 40 cm [4]
magnetic flux density 1 µT (maximum, measured) - at a distance of 10 cm [1]
magnetic flux density 5.06 µT (mean, measured) - average value of 29 different toasters at a distance of 5 cm; measurement bandwidth: 40 - 800 Hz [2]
magnetic flux density 7.2 µT (maximum) - at a distance of 3 cm
magnetic flux density 7.34 µT (mean, measured) - average value of 13 different toasters directly at the surface; measurement bandwidth: 0 - 3000 Hz [5]
magnetic flux density 8 µT (maximum, measured) - directly in front of the device [4]
magnetic flux density 9 µT (maximum, calculated) - at a distance of 10 cm [1]
magnetic flux density 20 µT (maximum, calculated) - at a distance of 3 cm [1]
electric field strength 80 V/m (maximum) - at a distance of 30 cm [8]
electric field strength 1.682 kV/m (maximum, measured) - at the surface of the device at 50 Hz [9]

References

  1. Mader DL et al. (1992): Residential exposure to 60-Hz magnetic fields from appliances.
  2. Preece AW et al. (1997): Magnetic fields from domestic appliances in the UK.
  3. Preece AW et al. (1999): Assessment of Human Exposure to Magnetic Fields Produced by Domestic Appliances
  4. Farag AS et al. (1998): Electromagnetic fields in the home.
  5. Ainsbury EA et al. (2005): An investigation into the vector ellipticity of extremely low frequency magnetic fields from appliances in UK homes.
  6. Lacy-Hulbert A et al. (1998): Biological responses to electromagnetic fields.
  7. EPA (1992): EMF in your Environment- Magnetic Field Measurements of Everyday Electrical Devices.
  8. No authors listed (2018): [Radiation and radiation protection]
  9. Leitgeb N et al. (2008): Electric emissions from electrical appliances.