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Smart meter

Belongs to:
Power supply
Description:

A smart meter is an electronic device for measuring consumption of electric energy and sending the information via cellular radio, fixed-line, power line communication or internet to a utiliy company. Smart meters can also be used to measure water and natural gas consumption.

Frequency ranges:
  • 50–60 Hz
  • 900 MHz
  • 1.8 GHz
  • 2.4 GHz
Type of field:
electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic

Measurements (acc. to literature)

data transfer via radio
Measurand Value Feature Remarks
power density 0.1–0.4 mW/m² (measured) 2.4 GHz US-style Smart Meter: during the data transmission in mesh mode to other local meters (1% duty cycle); distance: 3 m [1]
power density 0.0003 W/m² (measured) 900 MHz / 1.8 GHz at a distance of 10 m; 900 MHz/1.8 GHz GPRS modem at maximum power of 2 W; 10 % duty cycle [2]
power density 0.0006 W/m² (measured) 900 MHz / 1.8 GHz at a distance of 10 m; 900 MHz/1.8 GHz GPRS modem at maximum power of 2 W; 10 % duty cycle [2]
power density 1–4 mW/m² (measured) 2.4 GHz US-style Smart Meter: during the data transmission in mesh mode to other local meters (1% duty cycle); distance: 1 m [1]
power density 1–10 mW/m² (measured) 2.4 GHz at a distance of approximately 1 m in of two meters; transmission on ZigBee channels 20 and 22 [3]
power density 0.0013 W/m² (measured) 900 MHz / 1.8 GHz at a distance of 5 m; 900 MHz/1.8 GHz GPRS modem at maximum power of 2 W; 10 % duty cycle [2]
power density 0.002 W/m² (measured) 900 MHz / 2.4 GHz at a distance of 10 m; frequency of the mesh network: 900 MHz; frequency of the home area network (HAN): 2.4 GHz; 50 % duty cycle [2]
power density 0.0025 W/m² (measured) 900 MHz / 1.8 GHz at a distance of 5 m; 900 MHz/1.8 GHz GPRS modem at maximum power of 2 W; 10 % duty cycle [2]
power density 0.003 W/m² (measured) 900 MHz / 2.4 GHz at a distance of 5 m; frequency of the mesh network: 900 MHz; frequency of the home area network (HAN): 2.4 GHz; 100 % duty cycle [2]
power density 0.006 W/m² 900 MHz / 2.4 GHz at a distance of 5 m; frequency of the mesh network: 900 MHz; frequency of the home area network (HAN): 2.4 GHz; 50 % duty cycle [2]
power density 0.008 W/m² (measured) 900 MHz / 1.8 GHz at a distance of 2 m; 900 MHz/1.8 GHz GPRS modem at maximum power of 2 W; 10 % duty cycle [2]
power density 10–40 mW/m² (measured) 2.4 GHz US-style Smart Meter: during the data transmission in mesh mode to other local meters; distance: 3 m [1]
power density 0.013 W/m² (measured) 900 MHz / 2.4 GHz at a distance of 5 m; frequency of the mesh network: 900 MHz; frequency of the home area network (HAN): 2.4 GHz; 100 % duty cycle [2]
power density 0.016 W/m² (measured) 900 MHz / 1.8 GHz at a distance of 2 m; 900 MHz/1.8 GHz GPRS modem at maximum power of 2 W; 10 % duty cycle [2]
power density 1.8 µW/cm² (measured) 902 - 928 MHz at a distance of 3.048 m and a duty cycle of 50 %; power of the transmitting antenna: 1 W [4]
power density 0.032 W/m² (measured) 900 MHz / 1.8 GHz at a distance of 1 m; 900 MHz/1.8 GHz GPRS modem at maximum power of 2 W; 10 % duty cycle [2]
power density 0.04 W/m² (measured) 900 MHz / 2.4 GHz at a distance of 2 m; frequency of the mesh network: 900 MHz; frequency of the home area network (HAN): 2.4 GHz; 50 % duty cycle [2]
power density 0.064 W/m² (measured) 900 MHz / 1.8 GHz at a distance of 1 m; 900 MHz/1.8 GHz GPRS modem at maximum power of 2 W; 10 % duty cycle [2]
power density 0.08 W/m² (measured) 900 MHz / 2.4 GHz at a distance of 2 m; frequency of the mesh network: 900 MHz; frequency of the home area network (HAN): 2.4 GHz; 100 % duty cycle [2]
power density 100–400 mW/m² (measured) 2.4 GHz US-style Smart Meter: during the data transmission in mesh mode to other local meters; distance: 1 m [1]
power density 0.16 W/m² (measured) 900 MHz / 2.4 GHz at a distance of 1 m; frequency of the mesh network: 900 MHz; frequency of the home area network (HAN): 2.4 GHz; 50 % duty cycle [2]
power density 20 µW/cm² (measured) 902 - 928 MHz at a distance of 91.44 cm and a duty cycle of 50 %; power of the transmitting antenna: 1 W [4]
power density 0.32 W/m² (measured) 900 MHz / 2.4 GHz at a distance of 1 m; frequency of the mesh network: 900 MHz; frequency of the home area network (HAN): 2.4 GHz; 100 % duty cycle [2]
power density 620 mW/m² (measured) 2.4 GHz at a distance of 30 cm to an isolated meter; transmission on ZigBee channel 1 [3]
power density 180 µW/cm² (measured) 902 - 928 MHz at a distance of 30.48 cm and a duty cycle of 50 %; power of the transmitting antenna: 1 W [4]
power density 200 µW/cm² (measured) 902 - 928 MHz at a distance of 30.48 cm and a duty cycle of 50 % [4]
low frequency fields by the device
Measurand Value Feature Remarks
electric field strength 0.0276 V/m (mean, measured) 5 Hz - 100 kHz Increase against background measurement; smart meter: L+G Focus (NIC-507) [5]
electric field strength 0.0595 V/m (mean, measured) 5 Hz - 100 kHz Increase against background measurement; smart meter: GE-I210 (NIC-514) [5]
magnetic flux density ≤ 0.001 µT (mean, measured) 5 Hz - 100 kHz Increase against background measurement; smart meter: GE-I210 (NIC-514) [5]
magnetic flux density ≤ 0.001 µT (mean, measured) 5 Hz - 100 kHz Increase against background measurement; smart meter: L+G Focus (NIC-507) [5]

References

  1. National Grid (UK): Smart Meters
  2. Electric Power Engineering Centre et al. (2012): Health and safety aspects of electricity smart meters. A study into potential health effects of radio frequency emissions from smart meters.
  3. Foster KR et al. (2013): Radiofrequency energy exposure from the Trilliant smart meter.
  4. Richmond R et al. (2011): Health Impacts of Radio Frequency from Smart Meters.
  5. Kavet R et al. (2011): Characterization of Radiofrequency Emissions From Two Models of Wireless Smart Meters.