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Drill

Belongs to:
Tools
Synonyms:
Drill (portable), Drilling hammer, Drilling machine, Hammer drill, Impact drill, Percussion drilling machine, Standing drill
Description:

A drill is an electric tool for drilling a hole in different materials. For that purpose, the drill bit is set into a rotary motion by an electric motor. Depending on the material to be drilled the drill bit has to be cooled during operation, e.g. with water.

In the following, measurement data of different types of drills (drill hammer, impact drill, portable drill, standing drill) can be found.
The impact drill can apply a percussion additionally to the drill in order to wear mineral materials down. This function can be switched off to drill holes in wood, metal, plastic, etc.
The drill hammer is optimized for drilling minerals, has a greater impact than the impact drill and can apply it without a rotation.
Standing drills are firmly installed drills which allow higher rotational speeds, more power or more precision.

The emitted alternating electric and magnetic fields are mainly caused by the electric motor which is why electric emission can occur also in the kHz frequency region.

Frequency ranges:
  • 50–60 Hz (mains frequency)
Type of field:
electric and magnetic

Measurements (acc. to literature)

hammer drill
Measurand Value Feature Remarks
electric field strength 17.1 kV/m (maximum) - at the surface of the device at 50 Hz [1]
magnetic flux density 5.08 mT (maximum, calculated) - at the surface of the device at 50 Hz [2]
drill (portable)
Measurand Value Feature Remarks
electric field strength 12.99 kV/m (maximum, calculated) - at the surface at 50 Hz [1]
current density 0.09 mA/m² (maximum) - at a distance of 4 cm [3]
current density 0.06 mA/m² (maximum) - at a distance of 10 cm [3]
magnetic field strength 0.7–10 A/m (maximum) - range of values of different models in the 60 Hz component [4]
magnetic field strength 4 A/m (maximum) - as regards the 110 Hz-component at a distance of 15 cm [4]
magnetic field strength 5 A/m (maximum) - maximum value in the horizontal component at a distance of 30 cm [3]
magnetic field strength 8 A/m (maximum) - as regards the 100 Hz component at a distance of 15 cm [4]
magnetic field strength 10 A/m (maximum) - maximum value in the horizontal component at a distance of 20 cm [3]
magnetic field strength 10 A/m (maximum) - maximum value of the horizontal field component at a distance of 15 cm (typical use distance) [4]
magnetic field strength 14.24 A/m (maximum) - maximum value [3]
magnetic field strength 15 A/m (maximum) - maximum value of the horizontal component at a distance of 10 cm [3]
magnetic field strength 30 A/m (maximum) - maximum value of the horizontal component directly at the drill [3]
magnetic field strength 70 A/m (maximum) - interpolated maximum value of the horizontal field component at the surface of the device [4]
magnetic flux density 12.7 nT (mean) - spatially averaged value at distances from 3 mm - 30 cm [5]
magnetic flux density 0.08–0.2 µT (maximum) - at a distance of 1 m [6]
magnetic flux density 0.08–0.2 µT (maximum) - at a distance of 1 m [7]
magnetic flux density 2–3.5 µT (maximum) - at a distance of 30 cm [7]
magnetic flux density 2–4 µT (maximum) - at a distance of 30 cm [8]
magnetic flux density 10–20 µT (maximum) - at a distance of 15 cm [8]
magnetic flux density 12.72 µT (mean) - spatially averaged value at distances from 3 - 30 cm [9]
magnetic flux density 72 µT (maximum) - at a distance of 5.6 cm [10]
magnetic flux density 400–800 µT (maximum) - at a distance of 3 cm [7]
magnetic flux density 500 µT (maximum) - at an operation frequency of 50 Hz [11]
magnetic flux density 0.1 µT–1.3 mT (maximum) - at a distance between 1 cm - 1 m [12]
magnetic flux density 2.14 mT (maximum, calculated) - at the surface at 50 Hz [2]
impact drill
Measurand Value Feature Remarks
electric field strength 11.32 kV/m (maximum) - at the surface of the device at 50 Hz [1]
magnetic flux density 4.62 mT (maximum, calculated) - at the surface of the device at 50 Hz [2]
magnetic flux density 350 µT–9 mT (maximum) - range that results from the measurement of 25 different devices [13]
standing drill
Measurand Value Feature Remarks
electric field strength 1.32 kV/m (maximum) - at the surface of the device at 50 Hz [1]
magnetic flux density 200 µT–1.5 mT (mean, measured) - range that results from the measurement of nine different devices [13]
magnetic flux density 758 µT (maximum, calculated) - at the surface of the device at 50 Hz [2]

References

  1. Leitgeb N et al. (2008): Electric emissions from electrical appliances.
  2. Leitgeb N et al. (2008): Magnetic emission ranking of electrical appliances. A comprehensive market survey.
  3. Nishizawa S et al. (2007): Low-frequency dosimetry of inhomogeneous magnetic fields using the coil source model and the household appliance.
  4. Tofani S et al. (1995): Spectral analysis of magnetic fields from domestic appliances and corresponding induced current densities in an anatomically based model of the human head.
  5. Preece AW et al. (1997): Magnetic fields from domestic appliances in the UK.
  6. IEH et al. (2012): [BMU study: Ecological effects of 380-kV-ground wires and HGÜ-ground wires. (Report of the working group Engineering / Economics) Volume 4.3]
  7. No authors listed (2018): [Radiation and radiation protection]
  8. National Research Council (1997): Possible health effects of exposure to residential electric and magnetic fields.
  9. Mader DL et al. (1992): Residential exposure to 60-Hz magnetic fields from appliances.
  10. Straume A et al. (2007): Frequency spectra from current vs. magnetic flux density measurements for mobile phones and other electrical appliances.
  11. Leitgeb N et al. (2007): Electromagnetic field spectral evaluation problems in exposure assessment.
  12. Wertheimer N et al. (1979): Electrical wiring configurations and childhood cancer.
  13. Leitgeb N et al. (2008): Magnetic emissions of electric appliances.