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Railway

Belongs to:
Rail vehicle
Synonyms:
Railway, Train
Description:

Railways are rail vehicles for the transportation of passengers or goods for long distance or regional travel. In general, railways are driven electrically.

The measured values which are provided here refer to magnetic fields caused by the overhead rail tracks when a train is passing by. The measurements took place either on board of various trains or at different locations near the railtracks. Measured values of magnetic fields caused solely by the overhead rail tracks without a train passing by can be found separately under overhead rail tracks.

Frequency ranges:
  • 0 Hz (Direct current)
  • 16.7 Hz
  • 50–60 Hz
  • 100 Hz
Type of field:
electric and magnetic

Measurements (acc. to literature)

Australia
Measurand Value Feature Remarks
magnetic flux density 0.001–8.7 µT (measured) frequency not specified at the front floor [1]
magnetic flux density 0.15–0.83 µT frequency not specified on the middle floor [1]
magnetic flux density 0.03–0.55 µT (measured) frequency not specified at the pantograph [1]
magnetic flux density 0.06–0.36 µT frequency not specified on the rear floor [1]
Germany
Measurand Value Feature Remarks
magnetic flux density 0.1–70 µT (measured) 16.7 Hz in the passenger compartment [2]
magnetic flux density 8–280 µT (measured) 16.7 Hz in the head region of the conductor [2]
magnetic flux density 9–1,020 µT (measured) 16.7 Hz in the chest region of the conductor [2]
magnetic flux density 75 µT (maximum, measured) frequency not specified short time maximum value [3]
electric field strength 1–3 kV/m (maximum, measured) frequency not specified at a distance of 20 m from the railroads during the passing of train [3]
electric field strength 2–3 kV/m (maximum, measured) frequency not specified directly under the power line [3]
France
Measurand Value Feature Remarks
magnetic flux density 0.15 µT (mean, measured) 302 - 3002 Hz in the passenger compartment (TGV-A) [4]
magnetic flux density 0.2 µT (measured) 300 - 3000 Hz in the operator's cab (TGV-A) [5]
magnetic flux density 0.26 µT (measured) 62 - 300 Hz in the operator's cab (TGV-A) [5]
magnetic flux density 0.27 µT (mean, measured) 62 - 303 HZ in the passenger compartment (TGV-A) [4]
magnetic flux density 0.44 µT (measured) 300 - 3000 Hz in the operator's cab (TGV-A double decker) [5]
magnetic flux density 1.64 µT (measured) 3 - 48 Hz in the operator's cab (TGV-A) [5]
magnetic flux density 1.66 µT (measured) 62 - 300 Hz in the operator's cab (TGV-A double decker) [5]
magnetic flux density 1.8 µT (measured) 3 - 48 Hz in the operator's cab (TGV-A double decker) [5]
magnetic flux density 2.33 µT (mean, measured) 2 - 48 Hz in the passenger compartment (TGV-A) [4]
magnetic flux density 3.05 µT (mean, measured) 48 - 62 Hz in the passenger compartment (TGV-A) [4]
magnetic flux density 3.05 µT (mean, measured) 50 - 60 Hz TGV [6]
magnetic flux density 3.74 µT (measured) 48 - 62 Hz in the operator's cab (TGV-A) [5]
magnetic flux density 8.73 µT (measured) 48 - 62 Hz in the operator's cab (TGV-A double decker) [5]
magnetic flux density 16.5 µT (maximum, measured) 50 - 60 Hz TGV [6]
magnetic flux density 54.5 µT (mean, measured) static magnetic field spatially averaged (TGV-A) [6]
magnetic flux density 61.1 µT (measured) static magnetic field in the operator's cab (TGV-A) [5]
magnetic flux density 79.5 µT (measured) static magnetic field in the operator's cab (TGV-A double decker) [5]
magnetic flux density 96.2 µT (maximum, measured) static magnetic field TGV [6]
Great Britian
Measurand Value Feature Remarks
magnetic flux density 5–50 µT 50 Hz for electric locomotives [7]
magnetic flux density 3 mT (maximum, measured) static magnetic field at a height of 0.5 m in the equiptment car [7]
Great Britain
Measurand Value Feature Remarks
magnetic flux density 10–30 µT (maximum, measured) frequency not specified while cruising, measured near 25 kV AC high voltage supply lines [8]
magnetic flux density 27 µT (maximum, measured) static magnetic field up to a height of 1.4 m above the floor in the driver's cab [7]
magnetic flux density 200 µT (maximum, measured) frequency not specified during acceleration, measured near 25 kV AC high voltage supply lines [8]
magnetic flux density 2.5 mT (maximum, measured) 100 Hz at a height of 0.5 m above ground in the equiptment car [7]
magnetic flux density ≤ 15 mT (measured) static field at floor-level of an EMU [9]
Italy
Measurand Value Feature Remarks
magnetic flux density 0.14–1.31 µT (mean, measured) 5 Hz - 30 kHz in the posterior control booth at a height of 1.3 m above ground, averaged over 5 different types of locomotives with each 27 different measurement points [10]
magnetic flux density 0.14–2.43 µT (measured) up to 1 kHz in the engine corridor [11]
magnetic flux density 0.16–0.74 µT (mean, measured) 5 Hz - 30 kHz in the front control booth at a height of 0.8 m above ground, averaged over 5 different types of locomotives with each 27 different measurement points [10]
magnetic flux density 0.17–1.48 µT (mean, measured) 40 - 1000 Hz - [11]
magnetic flux density 0.22–2.02 µT (mean, measured) 5 Hz - 30 kHz in the front control booth at a height of 0.8 m above ground, averaged over 5 different types of locomotives with each 27 different measurement points [10]
magnetic flux density 0.24–0.69 µT (mean, measured) 5 Hz - 30 kHz in the posterior control booth at a height of 0.1 m above ground, averaged over 5 different types of locomotives with each 27 different measurement points [10]
magnetic flux density 0.3–3.16 µT (mean, measured) 5 Hz - 30 kHz in the front control booth at a height of 0.1 m above ground, averaged over 5 different types of locomotives with each 27 different measurement points [10]
magnetic flux density 0.43–1.03 µT (mean, measured) 5 Hz - 30 kHz in the front control booth at a height of 1.3 m above ground, averaged over 5 different types of locomotives with each 27 different measurement points [10]
magnetic flux density 0.62–3.18 µT (measured) up to 1 kHz in the engine corridor [11]
magnetic flux density 0.75–19.66 µT (maximum, measured) 40 - 1000 Hz - [11]
magnetic flux density 90–270 µT (maximum, measured) frequency not specified in the driver's cab at a height of 1 m [11]
Russia
Measurand Value Feature Remarks
magnetic flux density 52 µT (measured) static magnetic field z-component of the magnetic field perpendicular to the cabin floor on board an electric locomotive at a velocity of 120 km/h [12]
magnetic flux density 50 µT (measured) static magnetic field z-component of the magnetic field perpendicular to the cabin floor on board an electric locomotive at a velocity of 105 km/h [13]
magnetic flux density 53 µT (measured) static magnetic field z-component of the magnetic field perpendicular to the cabin floor on board an electric locomotive at a velocity of 90 km/h [13]
magnetic flux density 45 µT (measured) static magnetic field z-component of the magnetic field perpendicular to the cabin floor on board an electric locomotive at a velocity of 60 km/h [13]
magnetic flux density 49 µT (measured) static magnetic field z-component of the magnetic field perpendicular to the cabin floor on board an electric locomotive at a velocity of 45 km/h [13]
Switzerland
Measurand Value Feature Remarks
magnetic flux density 0.7 µT (mean, measured) 16,7 Hz average value out of various electric and magnetic sources for the personal exposition of a station master in 1980, averaged over 20141 railroad workers [14]
magnetic flux density 1 µT (mean, measured) 16,7 Hz average value out of various electric and magnetic sources for the personal exposition of a station master in 2000, averaged over 20141 railroad workers [14]
magnetic flux density 1.8 µT (mean, measured) 16,7 Hz average value out of various electric and magnetic sources for the personal exposition of a conductor in 1980, averaged over 20141 railroad workers [14]
magnetic flux density 21 µT (mean, measured) 16,7 Hz average value out of various electric and magnetic sources for the personal exposition of a train driver in 2000, averaged over 20141 railroad workers [14]
magnetic flux density 21.4 µT (mean, measured) 16,7 Hz average value out of various electric and magnetic sources for the personal exposition of a train driver in 1980, averaged over 20141 railroad workers [14]
Swiss
Measurand Value Feature Remarks
magnetic flux density 4.1 µT (mean, measured) 16,7 Hz average value out of various electric and magnetic sources for the personal exposition of a conductor in 2000, averaged over 20141 railroad workers [14]
USA
Measurand Value Feature Remarks
magnetic flux density 0–0.02 µT (measured) 302 - 3000 Hz measured in an underpass with a train passing by on top (Acela Express) [5]
magnetic flux density 0–0.06 µT (measured) 62 - 302 Hz measured in an underpass with a train passing by on top (Acela Express) [5]
magnetic flux density 0–0.1 µT (measured) 2 - 48 Hz measured om an overpass with a train passing by below (regional train) [5]
magnetic flux density 0–0.29 µT (measured) 2 - 48 Hz in an underpass (Acela) [5]
magnetic flux density 0–0.42 µT (measured) 2 - 48 Hz measured om an overpass with a train passing by below (Acela Express) [5]
magnetic flux density 0–0.48 µT (measured) 302 - 3000 Hz measured in an underpass with a train passing by on top (regional train) [5]
magnetic flux density 0–0.64 µT (measured) 2 - 48 Hz measured in an underpass with a train passing by on top (regional train) [5]
magnetic flux density 0.01–0.02 µT (measured) 302 - 3000 Hz at an overpass (Acela) [5]
magnetic flux density 0.01–0.02 µT (measured) 302 - 3000 Hz measured om an overpass with a train passing by below (regional train) [5]
magnetic flux density 0.01–0.97 µT (measured) 62 - 302 Hz measured in an underpass with a train passing by on top (regional train) [5]
magnetic flux density 0.02–0.76 µT (measured) 48 - 62 Hz measured in an underpass with a train passing by on top (Acela Express) [5]
magnetic flux density 0.03–10.47 µT (measured) 48 - 62 Hz measured in an underpass with a train passing by on top (regional train) [5]
magnetic flux density 0.05–0.15 µT (measured) 62 - 302 Hz measured om an overpass with a train passing by below (regional train) [5]
magnetic flux density 0.05–0.29 µT (measured) 62 - 302 Hz measured om an overpass with a train passing by below (Acela Express) [5]
magnetic flux density 0.07 µT (mean, measured) 302 - 3002 Hz in the passenger compartment (NJT Long Branch) [4]
magnetic flux density 0.08–2.93 µT (measured) 48 - 62 Hz measured om an overpass with a train passing by below (regional train) [5]
magnetic flux density 0.12 µT (mean, measured) 300 - 3000 Hz in the operator's cab (NJT Long Branch) [5]
magnetic flux density 0.12 µT (mean, measured) 300 - 3000 Hz in the passenger compartment for 60 Hz overhead rail tracks (NEC) [5]
magnetic flux density 0.12–2.2 µT (measured) 48 - 62 Hz measured om an overpass with a train passing by below (Acela Express) [5]
magnetic flux density 0.13 µT (mean, measured) 3 - 48 Hz in the operator's cab (NJT Long Branch) [5]
magnetic flux density 0.14 µT (mean, measured) 300 - 3000 Hz in the oparator's cab for 25 Hz overhead rail tracks (NEC) [5]
magnetic flux density 0.14 µT (mean, measured) 3 - 48 Hz, 302 - 3002 Hz in the passenger compartment for 60 HZ overhead rail trakcs (NEC) [4]
magnetic flux density 0.16 µT (mean, measured) 3 - 48 Hz in the passenger compartment (NJT Long Branch) [4]
magnetic flux density 0.21 µT (mean, measured) 3 - 48 Hz in the operator's cab for 60 Hz overhead rail tracks (NEC) [5]
magnetic flux density 0.25 µT (mean, measured) 62 - 303 Hz in the passenger compartment (NJT Long Branch) [4]
magnetic flux density 0.27 µT (mean, measured) 302 - 3002 Hz in the passenger compartment fro a 25 Hz overhead railtrack system (NEC) [4]
magnetic flux density 0.38 µT (mean, measured) 62 - 300 Hz in the operator's cab (NJT Long Branch) [5]
magnetic flux density 0.39 µT (mean, measured) 62 - 300 Hz in the operator's cab for 60 Hz overhead rail tracks (NEC) [5]
magnetic flux density 0.55 µT (mean, measured) 62 - 300 Hz in the operator's cab for 25 Hz overhead rail tracks (NEC) [5]
magnetic flux density 0.57 µT (mean, measured) 62 - 303 Hz in the passenger compartment for a 60 Hz overhead railtrack system (NEC) [4]
magnetic flux density 0.6 µT (mean, measured) 48 - 62 Hz in the passenger compartment for a 25 Hz overhead railtrack system (NEC) [4]
magnetic flux density 1.17 µT (mean, measured) 48 - 62 Hz in the operator's cab for 25 Hz overhead rail tracks (NEC) [5]
magnetic flux density 1.62 µT (mean, measured) 62 - 303 Hz in the passenger compartment for a 25 Hz overhead railtrack system (NEC) [4]
magnetic flux density 1.82 µT (mean, measured) 48 - 62 Hz in the passenger compartment (NJT Long Branch) [4]
magnetic flux density 2.68 µT (mean, measured) 48 - 62 Hz in the operator's cab for 60 Hz overhead rail tracks (NEC) [5]
magnetic flux density 3.11 µT (mean, measured) 48 - 62 Hz in the operator's cab (NJT Long Branch) [5]
magnetic flux density 4.12 µT (mean, measured) 3 - 48 Hz in the operator's cab for 25 Hz overhead rail tracks (NEC) [5]
magnetic flux density 5.2 µT (mean, measured) 48 - 62 Hz in the passenger compartment for a 60 Hz overhead railtrack system (NEC) [4]
magnetic flux density 13.2 µT (mean, measured) 2 - 48 Hz in the passenger compartment for a 25 Hz overhead railtrack system (NEC) [4]
magnetic flux density 31.9 µT (mean, measured) static magnetic field in the operator's cab (NJT Long Branch) [5]
magnetic flux density 43.5 µT (mean, measured) static magnetic field in the operator's cab for 60 Hz overhead rail tracks (NEC) [5]
magnetic flux density 50–56.1 µT (measured) static magnetic field measured in an underpass with a train passing by on top (regional train) [5]
magnetic flux density 50.3–51.3 µT (measured) static magnetic field measured in an underpass with a train passing by on top (Acela Express) [5]
magnetic flux density 60.6 µT (mean, measured) static magnetic field in the passenger compartment field for a 25 Hz overhead rail track system (NEC) [4]
magnetic flux density 63 µT (mean, measured) static magnetic field in the passenger compartment for a 60 Hz overhead railtrack system (NEC) [4]
magnetic flux density 64.8 µT (mean, measured) static magnetic field in the operator's cab for 25 Hz overhead rail tracks (NEC) [5]
magnetic flux density 73.4 µT (mean, measured) static magnetic field in the passenger compartment (NJT Long Branch) [4]
magnetic flux density 92.7–94 µT (measured) static magnetic field measured om an overpass with a train passing by below (Acela Express) [5]
magnetic flux density 92.9–93.8 µT (measured) static magnetic field measured om an overpass with a train passing by below (regional train) [5]
electric field strength 1.8–52.2 V/m (measured) frequency not specified in the passenger compartment at chest height (Acela) [5]

References

  1. Halgamuge MN et al. (2010): Measurement and analysis of electromagnetic fields from trams, trains and hybrid cars.
  2. Schmid G et al. (2009): [Departmental research reports on nuclear safety and radiation protection, 21/09 Determination of the exposure to magnetic fields of alternative drive concepts: final report on the research project; project 3608S04574; SL-LE-0004/09]
  3. (2018): [Radiation and radiation protection]
  4. Brecher A et al. (2002): Electromagnetic Field Characteristics of the Transrapid TR08 Maglev System.
  5. Fugate D et al. (2006): EMF Monitoring on Amtrak's Northeast Corridor: Post-Electrification Measurements and Analysis.
  6. ICNIRP (2008): ICNIRP statement on EMF-emitting new technologies.
  7. Allen SG et al. (1994): Review of Occupational Exposure to Optical Radiation and Electric and Magnetic Fields with Regard to the Proposed CEC Physical Agents Directive. NRPB·R265
  8. Lacy-Hulbert A et al. (1998): Biological responses to electromagnetic fields.
  9. Chadwick P et al. (1998): Magnetic fields on British trains.
  10. Santangelo L et al. (2005): Magnetic field exposure and arrythmic risk: evaluation in railway drivers.
  11. Contessa GM et al. (2010): Exposure to magnetic fields of railway engine drivers: a case study in Italy.
  12. Fard MS et al. (2011): Measurement of the magnetic fields of high-voltage substations (230 kV) in Tehran (Iran) and comparison with the ACGIH threshold limit values.
  13. Ptitsyna NG et al. (2003): Magnetic field testing of DC- and AC- powered rail systems: Waveforms and exposure assessment.
  14. Röösli M et al. (2008): Cardiovascular mortality and exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields: a cohort study of Swiss railway workers.