Molecular biology. Miniaturized chemical reaction area that can perform thousands of simultaneous biochemical reactions. It allows to quickly screen biological samples such as nucleic acids, antibodies, or proteins in biochemical, medical, genetical and microbiological research. The size of a microarray and the fabrication using microlithography techniques are similar to a chip, therefore it is also called biochip.
Sensor material is deposited on a flat substrate (e.g., silicon or glass). Complementary molecules of the sample will bind and the fluorescent tags of the reactants can be visualized by laser light.
See also DNA microarray and protein microarray.