scientific publication

German: wissenschaftliche Publikation
Japanese: 科学出版物

A scientific publication is subdivided in the sections title, authors, key words, abstract, introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion and references.

The title is a short, concise summary of the content.
In authors, all who actively contributed to the experiments are listed.
Key words is a listing of relevant terms subject of the publication.
The abstract is a short information about the purpose of the investigation, the employed methods, a summary of the results, and the principal conclusion. Having read the abstract the reader decides whether he will read the whole publication or is not any more interested.
In the introduction, an overview of the research problem is given completed by the current literature. Furthermore, a short description of the methods is given.
In materials and methods, the full description of the procedures, instruments, and equipment are given to enable any scientist to repeat the study obtaining the same results.
In the section results, all relevant data are presented including statistics. Often the results are illustrated by figures or tables.
In the discussion, the results are interpreted and compared with findings of previously published works. Exceptions are lined out and the limitations of the study are shown. Theoretical implications and practical applications are discussed and an outlook on planned projects is given.
In the references, all cited scientific publications are listed.

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