Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Response, thermal regulatory threshold and thermal breakdown threshold of restrained RF-exposed mice at 905 MHz. med./bio.

Published in: Phys Med Biol 2005; 50 (21): 5203-5215

Aim of study (acc. to author)

Determination of the thermal regulatory and the thermal breakdown thresholds for in-tube restrained mice exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields at 905 MHz.

Background/further details

Three regions of thermal response are distinguished: 1) a non-thermal regulatory region, where no measurable temperature response occurs, 2) a thermal regulatory region, where the regulatory system is able to compensate the absorbed energy (to achieve a stable body temperature), and 3) a thermal breakdown region, where the organism is not able to compensate the temperature increase.
For B6C3F1 mice, the thermal response was investigated for three different weight groups (20 g, 24 g, 29 g), both genders and for pregnant mice. In addition, NMRI mice with a weight of 36 g were examined for an interstrain comparison.



Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 905 MHz
Exposure duration: continuous for 2 h
  • SAR: 20 W/kg average over mass (whole body) (2, 5, 7.2, 10, 12.6, 20 W/kg)

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 905 MHz
  • guided field
Exposure duration continuous for 2 h
Additional info Taylor B N and Kuyatt C E ,1994, Guidelines for evaluating and expressing the uncertainty of NIST measurement results, Nat. Inst. Stand. & Technol. (Washington, DC), p 26.
Modulation type unspecified
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Distance between exposed object and exposure source 111.5 mm
Chamber The mice were exposed inside a 'Mini Wheel Setup', the concept of which was derived from the 'Ferris Wheel Setup' [Balzano et al., 2000]. The mini wheel setup was designed as a mono-mode cavity resonant waveguide structure of two parallel, circularly shaped metallic plates (diameter 332 mm, separation 120 mm) shorted with metallic bars along the outer edge and with an isotropic antenna at the centre. The system was matched for resonance (return loss ≤ -18 dB) using a triple stub tuner.
Setup The mice were circularly positioned in restrainer tubes at a radial distance of 111.5 mm from the antenna with their body axis oriented parallel to the E-field.
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Additional info Groups of eight mice were exposed to a series of increasing SAR levels on consecutive days (one exposure per mouse group per day). Four additional animals of the same breed, gender and weight group were always sham exposed in a second setup.
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
SAR 20 W/kg average over mass measured and calculated whole body 2, 5, 7.2, 10, 12.6, 20 W/kg

Reference articles

  • Balzano Q et al. (2000): An efficient RF exposure system with precise whole-body average SAR determination for in vivo animal studies at 900 MHz.

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated material:
Time of investigation:
  • before exposure
  • during exposure
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

The thermal regulatory threshold of in-tube restrained mice was revealed at SAR levels between 2 W/kg and 5 W/kg, whereas the breakdown of regulation was determined at 10.1 +/- 4.0 W/kg for B6C3F1 mice and 7.7 +/- 1.6 W/kg for NMRI mice. The thresholds show a clear dependence upon the metabolic rate and weight. NMRI mice were more sensitive to thermal stress and responded at lower SAR values with regulation and breakdown.
The data suggest that the thermal breakdown for restrained mice, exposed to radiofrequency fields, may occur at SAR levels of 6 W/kg at laboratory conditions.

Study character:

Study funded by

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