Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

The effect of homeopathically prepared thyroxine on highland frogs: influence of electromagnetic fields. med./bio.

Published in: Homeopathy 2008; 97 (1): 3-9

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To study the effect of a thyroxine solution exposed to various electromagnetic fields (microwave oven, mobile phone, airport x-ray, barcode scanner) on metamorphosis in highland frogs.

Background/further details

A total of 2980 frogs (Rana temporaria) were used. One group was treated with a homeopathically prepared thyroxine solution (n=860), another with the analogously prepared solvent water (n=860). The remaining 1160 animals were grouped and treated with different test solutions (water, ethanol, thyroxine) that had been exposed to different electromagnetic fields (microwave oven, mobile phone, x-ray and red light scan). In each experiment one group was treated with control substance and one group with standard test solution. The cumulative frequency of metamorphosis was aggregated for each day.

Endpoint

Exposure

Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 50 Hz–2.45 GHz
Exposure duration: continuous for 100 s
Exposure 2:
Exposure duration: see add. information
Exposure 3:
Exposure duration: see below
-
Exposure 4: -

General information

A total of 2980 animals was used: 20 animals each in 149 white plastic basins forming a total of 21 groups according to the treatment protocol. Three µl of probe solution (WD30 or TD30) were added per animal and per 300 ml of basin water at intervals of 48 h. The basins were arranged in rows of 3-5 according to the number of substances used in the experiment. The spatial arrangement within rows rotated from row to row, so that basins with identical treatment groups were arranged in diagonals.

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 50 Hz–2.45 GHz
Type
Exposure duration continuous for 100 s
Additional info 2.45 GHz and 50 Hz
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Setup Two samples of aqueous thyroxin solution TD30 were exposed in vials placed immediately next to the microwave oven. One of the samples was wrapped in two layers of commercial aluminium foil. A third sample of TD30 and the water control WD30 were left unexposed in a separate room.
Additional info In a further experiment, thyroxin samples and the water control were prepared with 42% v/v ethanol instead of water. One sample was exposed and another one was not exposed. There was no sample wrapped in aluminium foil involved.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
magnetic flux density 110 µT - measured - 50 Hz
electric field strength 5 V/m - measured - 50 Hz
power density 10 mW/m² - measured - 2.45 GHz

Exposure 2

Main characteristics
Frequency
Type
Charakteristic
Exposure duration see add. information
Additional info mobile phone not specified
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Distance between exposed object and exposure source 0 cm
Setup Two samples of TD30 were exposed in vials placed immediately (0 cm) next to the mobile phone. One of the samples was wrapped in aluminium foil. A third sample was exposed at a distance of 25 cm.
Additional info Five successive call setups were performed with intermediate return to standby.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power density 300 nW/m² - measured - in standby
power density 339 nW/m² - measured - during call setup

Exposure 3

Main characteristics
Frequency
Type
Exposure duration see below
Additional info X-rays
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Setup Two samples of TD30 were exposed in vials passing four times through an X-ray luggage inspection device at a conveyor speed of 0.2 m/s at an airport during routine operation. One of the samples was wrapped in aluminium foil.
Parameters

No parameters are specified for this exposure.

Exposure 4

Main characteristics
Frequency
Type
Additional info red light (660 nm)
Exposure setup
Exposure source
  • barcode scanner
Setup One sample of TD30, bearing a paper label with a barcode, was exposed once to a red light barcode scanner.
Parameters

No parameters are specified for this exposure.

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Investigated organ system:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

Animals treated with the standard test thyroxine solution metamorphosed more slowly than the control animals, i.e. the effect of the homeopathically prepared thyroxine was opposed to the usual physiological effect of molecular thyroxine. In contrast this effect did not occur when the thyroxine solution had been exposed to the electromagnetic field of the microwave oven or mobile phone. There was no difference between aqueous or alcoholic solutions. Exposure to airport X-ray and red light barcode scanning did not diminish the effect of the homeopathic solution.

Study character:

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