Some ECTO-NOX proteins appear to function as core oscillators of the cells' biological clock. ECTO-NOX proteins catalyze two enzymatic activities: hydroquinone and NADH oxidation and disulfide-thiol interchange, alternating with a regular period length. ECTO-NOX proteins carry out hydroquinone (NADH) oxidation for 12 min (with two maxima separated by 6 min) and then that activity rests. While the hydroquinone (NADH) oxidative activity rests, the proteins engage in disulfide-thiol interchange activity for 12 min (with three maxima separated by intervals of 4.5 min). That activity then rests and the cycle repeats. Both reactions require copper.
Exposure duration: continuous for 2 min
|Exposure duration||continuous for 2 min|
|magnetic flux density||50 µT||-||-||-||-|
Data demonstrated that ECTO-NOX-/CuII-catalyzed oscillations in NADH oxidation are phased by exposure to low frequency electromagnetic fields (i.e. they caused a phase shift).
The authors conclude that these data of electromagnetic field effects on phasing of the CuII-related oscillatory rhythm of ECTO-NOX proteins demonstrates for the first time a molecular mechanism whereby electromagnetic fields might be sensed by the time keeping machinery of cells.