Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Changes in Paramecium caudatum (Protozoa) near a switched-on GSM telephone. med./bio.

Published in: Electromagn Biol Med 2011; 30 (1): 57-66

Aim of study (acc. to editor)

To study the effects of a mobile phone exposure on the swimming behaviour and morphological and physiological parameters of the protozoan Paramecium caudatum.

Background/further details

23-35 protozoans were investigated for each exposure/sham exposure condition (11 individuals for physiological parameters).



Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 900 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: continuous for at least 2 min, at least for four times

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 900 MHz
Exposure duration continuous for at least 2 min, at least for four times
Modulation type pulsed
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Setup cell phone in standby position; petri dish with a few or a few hundred individuals of Paramecium caudatum placed 1-2 cm from the mobile phone's antenna or directly on the phone
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power 2 W - - - -

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Time of investigation:
  • during exposure
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

Exposed individuals moved more slowly and more sinuously than individuals of the control group. The physiology of the exposed protozoa was also affected: they became broader, their cytopharynx appeared broader, their pulse vesicles had difficulties in expelling their content outside the cell, their cilia moved less efficiently, and the trichocysts became more visible.
All these effects might result from some bad functioning or damage of the cell membrane.

Study character:

Study funded by

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