Study type: Epidemiological study (observational study)

Lifestyle Risk Factors Associated with Threatened Miscarriage: A Case-Control Study epidem.

Published in: J Fertil In Vitro IVF Worldw Reprod Med Genet Stem Cell Biol 2014; 2 (2): 100123

Aim of study (acc. to author)

A case-control study was conducted in Singapore to investigate the association of several potentially modifiable maternal lifestyle risk factors (e.g. mobile phone and computer use, smoking, alcohol consumption) with threatened miscarriage.

Further details

Threatened miscarriage was defined as vaginal bleeding between the 5th and 10th completed weeks of gestation.

Endpoint/type of risk estimation

Type of risk estimation: (odds ratio (OR))



Exposure groups

Group Description
Reference group 1 mobile phone use: 0 - < 1 hour/day
Group 2 mobile phone use: ≥ 1 - < 2 hours/day
Group 3 mobile phone use: ≥ 2 hours/day
Reference group 4 computer use: 0 - < 1 hour/day
Group 5 computer use: ≥ 1 - < 4 hours/day
Group 6 computer use: ≥ 4 hours/day


Case group

Control group

Study size

Cases Controls
Eligible 157 266
Evaluable 154 264
Statistical analysis method: (adjustment: )

Results (acc. to author)

An association of threatened miscarriage with computer usage (>4 hours/day: OR 6.03, CI 2.82-12.88), mobile phone use (>1 hour/day: OR 2.94, CI 1.32-6.53), second-hand smoke exposure (OR 2.93, CI 1.32-6.48), and caffeine consumption (OR 2.95, CI 1.57- 5.57) was observed. Fish oil consumption was associated with reduced risk of threatened miscarriage (OR 0.20, CI 0.09-0.42).
The authors concluded that prolonged mobile phone and computer use and fish oil supplementation are potential novel correlates of threatened miscarriage that deserve further study.

Study funded by

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