Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Cell phone-generated radio frequency electromagnetic field effects on the locomotor behaviors of the fishes Poecilia reticulata and Danio rerio. med./bio.

Published in: Int J Radiat Biol 2015; 91 (10): 843-850

Aim of study (acc. to author)

The effects of exposure to a 1800 MHz electromagnetic field on the locomotor activity of fish should be investigated.

Background/further details

20 guppies (Poecilia reticulata) and 30 zebrafish (Danio rerio) were placed in a fish tank (fish were kept together to avoid synchronized movements) and examined under 5 different conditions: 1) control group (no exposure, fish fed) 2) sham exposure (visual presence of the mobile phone in the tank, fish fed), 3) sham exposure, fish starved, 4) exposure to the electromagnetic field (mobile phone in the tank) and fish starved, 5) exposure to the electromagnetic field and fish fed.



Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 0 Hz–1,800 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: continuous for 3 minutes

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 0 Hz–1,800 MHz
Exposure duration continuous for 3 minutes
Additional info + static magnetic field
Modulation type pulsed
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Additional info

GSM modulation

Exposure setup
Exposure source
Chamber glass fish tank (41 x 33 x 27 cm3); three sides of the glass tank were covered with white paper to avoid visual distractions and insulate thermal conduction; the top was uncovered for light and the front was uncovered for recording the movement of the fish
Setup the cell phone that was sealed in a plastic (polyethylene) bag and was merged to the left side of a fish tank, a wired earphone and a microphone were connected to control the act of turning-on and turning-off the cell phone; the battery part of cell phone was placed more than 12 cm below the water surface, and the antenna was merged about 9 cm underneath of water surface (to minimize the acoustic noise and static field); the top portion (location of speaker) was placed partially above water surface; cell phone was set on silent mode without vibration; a static magnetic field was generated by part of the speaker (top portion of the cellular phone that was placed partially above the water surface) when phone was turned on
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
magnetic flux density 195 µT maximum measured - signal on, in air, 1 cm distance to the mobile phone
magnetic flux density 88 µT minimum measured - signal on, in air, 4 cm distance to the mobile phone
magnetic flux density 121 µT maximum measured - signal on, in water, 1 cm distance to the mobile phone
magnetic flux density 45 µT minimum measured - signal on, in water, 1 cm distance to the mobile phone
SAR 0.9 W/kg - estimated - -
magnetic flux density 53 µT - measured - ± 2 µT; static magentic field from speaker; in air, 3 cm distance to the mobile phone

Reference articles

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Time of investigation:
  • during exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

The results showed that the fish reacted positively or negatively to the electromagnetic field depending on their feeding status: when fed they avoided the mobile phone, when starved they approached.
The authors conclude that exposure of small fish to a GSM 1800 MHz electromagnetic field could affect the locomotor activity depending on the feeding status.

Study character:

Study funded by

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